AP Hill — Facts and APUSH Notes

November 9, 1825–April 2, 1865

APUSH Definition — AP Hill (1825–1865) was an officer in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. He is most well-known for being one of Robert E. Lee's most-trusted officers.

General AP Hill, Civil War

A. P. Hill died from a gunshot wound to the heart while trying to rally his troops at the Battle of Petersburg on April 2, 1865. Image Source: Library of Congress.

Who was Civil War officer AP Hill?

A.P. Hill resigned from the U.S. Army in March 1861, just prior to Virginia seceding from the Union (April 17, 1861), to accept an appointment as a colonel of the 13th Virginia Infantry. On February 26, 1862, Confederate officials promoted Hill to brigadier general, and on May 26, to major general. He reached the rank of lieutenant general on May 24, 1863.

Hill led troops during the Peninsula Campaign, the Battle of Chancellorsville, the Battle of Cedar Mountain, the Second Battle of Bull Run, the Battle of Antietam, the Battle of Fredericksburg, the Battle of Chancellorsville (where he was wounded), the Battle of Gettysburg, the Battle of Bristoe Station, and the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House.

On April 2, 1865, federal troops broke Lee’s defensive line at Petersburg. As Hill hurried to the front with a lone staff officer, Corporal John W. Mauck of the 138th Pennsylvania, shot Hill through the heart, killing him instantly. Hill was buried initially in the old Winston Family Cemetery in Chesterfield, Virginia. In 1867, his remains were moved to Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia.

AP Hill Facts for APUSH

Birth and Early Life

  • Full Name: His full name was Ambrose Powell Hill.
  • Parents: His parents were Thomas and Frances Hill.
  • Date of Birth: He was born on November 9, 1825.
  • Birthplace: He was born in Greenland, his father’s plantation near Culpeper, Virginia.

Family Tree

  • Spouse: His spouse was Kitty Morgan McClung (1859). They were married in 1859.

Death

  • Death: He died on April 2, 1865.
  • Place of Death: He died in Charlotte, North Carolina.
  • Burial: He was buried at Winston Family Cemetery in Chesterfield, Virginia, and then moved to Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia.

Education

He attended the United States Military Academy (1847).

Career

He worked as a soldier.

Career Summary

He was a First lieutenant (USA) and Lieutenant General (CSA).

Nicknames

He was known as “AP” and “Little Powell.”

AP Hill — Summary of His Life and Accomplishments for APUSH

  • A. P. Hill entered the United States Military Academy in 1842, but graduated a year late, in 1847, due to illness.
  • While at West Point, A. P. Hill and future Union General George B. McClellan were roommates.
  • After graduating from West Point, A. P. Hill served in the Mexican-American War and the Seminole War.
  • On July 18, 1859, A.A. P. Hill married Kitty Morgan McClung, sister of Confederate cavalry general John Hunt Morgan.
  • A. P. Hill resigned from the U.S. Army in March 1861, just prior to Virginia seceding from the Union (April 17, 1861).
  • In March 1861, AA. P. Hill was appointed as a colonel of the 13th Virginia Infantry.
  • In early 1862, AA. P. Hill was promoted to brigadier general.
  • A. P. Hill’s fame came as the commander of his “Light Division” in the Army of Northern Virginia, which had a reputation for being able to move quickly and fight fiercely.
  • In 1862, Confederate commander Robert E. Lee transferred A. P. Hill to General Stonewall Jackson’s command to avoid a possible duel between Hill and his superior, General James Longstreet.
  • On September 3, 1862, Jackson had A. P. Hill arrested and temporarily relieved of his command when Hill questioned Jackson’s leadership abilities in front of subordinate officers.
  • On September 17, 1862, A. P. Hill’s division saved Robert E. Lee’s army from destruction at the Battle of Antietam by marching his troops from Harpers Ferry, Virginia to Sharpsburg, Maryland, and launching a blistering attack against Union forces.
  • On December 13, 1862, Union General George Meade’s troops breached A. P. Hill’s division at the Battle of Fredericksburg.
  • A. P. Hill’s running feud with his superior, Stonewall Jackson continued until Jackson’s death at the Battle of Chancellorsville.
  • On May 2, 1863, A. P. Hill was wounded in the same volley of friendly fire that killed Confederate General Stonewall Jackson during the Battle of Chancellorsville.
  • In 1863, A. P. Hill was promoted to lieutenant general and placed in command of the Third Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia.
  • Although A. P. Hill was sidelined by illness, his troops took part in Pickett’s Charge against Union troops entrenched on Cemetery Ridge on the last day of the Battle of Gettysburg (July 3, 1863).
  • A. P. Hill lost nearly two brigades of Confederate soldiers when poor planning resulted in an ill-advised attack at the Battle of Bristoe Station on October 14, 1863.
  • A. P. Hill died from a gunshot wound to the heart while trying to rally his troops at the Battle of Petersburg on April 2, 1865.
  • Throughout his career, A. P. Hill suffered from frequent bouts of illness, possibly from complications caused by venereal disease.
  • A. P. Hill was buried in the old Winston Family Cemetery in Chesterfield, Virginia.
  • In 1867, A. P. Hill’s remains were moved to Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia.
  • A. P. Hill was known for typically wearing a red shirt into battle.
  • On June 11, 1941, the U.S. Army established Fort A.P. Hill in Caroline County, Virginia, named in honor of A. P. Hill.

Citation Information

The following information is provided for citations, including APA Style, Chicago Style, and MLA Style.

  • Article Title AP Hill — Facts and APUSH Notes
  • Date November 9, 1825–April 2, 1865
  • Author
  • Keywords a.p. hill, confederate military commander, american civil war, army of northern virginia
  • Website Name American History Central
  • Access Date April 19, 2024
  • Publisher R.Squared Communications, LLC
  • Original Published Date
  • Date of Last Update January 12, 2024

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