Often referred to as the turning point in the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, from July 1 to July 3, 1863.
Date and Location
- July 1–3, 1863
- Adams County, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Principal Union Commanders
- Major General George G. Meade
Principal Confederate Commanders
- General Robert E. Lee
Union Forces Engaged
- Army of the Potomac
Confederate Forces Engaged
- Army of Northern Virginia
Number of Union Soldiers Engaged
- Roughly 93,000
Number of Confederate Soldiers Engaged
- Roughly 72,000
- Estimated 23,049 (3,155 killed, 14,529 wounded, and 5,365 captured or missing)
- Estimated 28,063 (3,903 killed, 18,735 wounded, and 5,425 missing/captured)
- Union victory
- Many historians consider the Battle of Gettysburg to be the pivotal battle of the American Civil War.
- The Battle of Gettysburg ended Confederate commander Robert E. Lee’s second and last attempt to invade the North.
- 3,155 Union soldiers were killed at the Battle of Gettysburg.
- 4,708 Confederate soldiers were killed at the Battle of Gettysburg.
- Considered separately, the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg was the twenty-third largest battle of the Civil War as measured by the number of soldiers engaged.
- Considered separately, the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg was the twelfth bloodiest in terms of casualties.
- Considered separately, the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg ranks as the tenth bloodiest engagement of the Civil War in terms of casualties.
- Considered separately, each of the three days of fighting at Gettysburg rank in the top fifteen deadliest battles of the Civil War.
- The Battle of Gettysburg was the deadliest engagement of the Civil War (in terms of casualties), but it was not the largest conflict (in terms of numbers of combatants involved)—that distinction belongs to the Battle of Fredericksburg.
- Pickett’s Charge against Union troops entrenched on Cemetery Ridge, which took place on the third day of the Battle of Gettysburg, has been referred to as the high-water mark of the Confederacy.
- Confederate commander Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia was forced to retreat to Virginia after the Battle of Gettysburg.
- On July 4, 1863, the day that Robert E. Lee began his retreat back to Virginia after the Battle of Gettysburg, Confederate General John C. Pemberton surrendered the city of Vicksburg, Mississippi and 30,000 Confederate troops to General Ulysses S. Grant, ending the Siege of Vicksburg.
- President Abraham Lincoln was highly critical of Union commander George G. Meade for not aggressively pursuing the Army of Northern Virginia as it retreated after the Battle of Gettysburg.
- On November 19, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln delivered his famous Gettysburg Address at the dedication of the Gettysburg National Cemetery.
Timeline of the Gettysburg Campaign
These are the main battles and events of the Gettysburg Campaign in order.
- June 9, 1863 — Battle of Brandy Station
- June 13 and June 15, 1863 — Second Battle of Winchester
- June 17, 1863 — Battle of Aldie
- June 11–June 19, 1863 — Battle of Middleburg
- June 21, 1863 — Battle of Upperville
- June 30, 1863 — Battle of Hanover
- July 1–3, 1863 — Battle of Gettysburg
- July 3, 1863 — Pickett’s Charge
- July 6–16, 1863 — Battle of Williamsport
- July 8, 1863 — Battle of Boonsboro
- July 23, 1863 — Battle of Manassas Gap