PGT Beauregard — Facts and APUSH Notes

May 28, 1818–February 20, 1893

APUSH Definition — PGT Beauregard (1818–1893) was an officer in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. He served with distinction throughout the war and is most well-known for commanding Confederate forces that bombarded Fort Sumter in April 1861 during the first battle of the war.

P. G. T. Beauregard commanded the Confederate forces that fired on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861. [National Archives]

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Who was Civil War officer PGT Beauregard?

P.G.T. Beauregard commanded the troops that touched off the Civil War by firing on Fort Sumter. He later became a full general in the Confederate Army and took part in the First Battle of Bull Run, the Battle of Shiloh, the Siege of Corinth, the Bermuda Hundred Campaign, the Savannah Campaign, and the Carolinas Campaign.

After the Civil War, Beauregard returned to New Orleans and took the oath of allegiance to the United States. On July 4, 1868, President Andrew Johnson extended amnesty to a group of Confederate leaders, including Beauregard. An act of Congress signed by President Grant on July 24, 1876, restored Beauregard’s citizenship. He later served as president of the New Orleans, Jackson, and Great Northern Railroad (1865–1870) and of the New Orleans and Carrollton Street Railway (1866–1876). Beauregard took part in the formation of the Reform Party in Louisiana, a coalition of moderate Democrats who supported civil rights for African Americans. Between 1877 and 1893, Beauregard served as commissioner of the Louisiana Lottery. In 1879, state officials appointed him as Adjutant General of Louisiana, serving until 1888. That year, voters elected Beauregard as the commissioner of public works for the city of New Orleans.

Beauregard died in New Orleans, Louisiana, on February 20, 1893. His remains rest in Metairie Cemetery, in New Orleans, Louisiana.

Bombardment of Fort Sumter, Illustration
This illustration depicts the bombardment of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Image Source: Library of Congress.

PGT Beauregard Facts for APUSH

Birth and Early Life

  • Full Name: His full name was Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard.
  • Parents: His parents were Jacques Toutant-Beauregard and Hélène Judith de Reggio Toutant-Beauregard.
  • Date of Birth: He was born on May 28, 1818.
  • Birthplace: He was born in the Contreras sugar-cane plantation in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana.

Family Tree

  • Spouse: He was married to Marie Antoinette Laure Villere in September 1841 and later to Caroline Deslonde in 1860.

Death

  • Death: He died on February 20, 1893.
  • Place of Death: He died in New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • Burial: He is buried at Metairie Cemetery in New Orleans, Louisiana.

Education

He attended the United States Military Academy and graduated in 1838.

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Career

He worked as a military officer, railroad executive, and Louisiana public official.

Career Summary

He was a General in the Confederate Army from 1861 to 1865.

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Nickname

He was known as PGT, Little Napoleon, and Little Creole.

PGT Beauregard — Summary of His Life and Accomplishments for APUSH

  • P. G. T. Beauregard was the third child of Jacques Toutant-Beauregard and Hélène Judith de Reggio Toutant-Beauregard, who were of French-Spanish Creole descent.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard attended private schools in New Orleans and New York City.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard learned to speak English at age 12 while attending school in New York City.
  • In 1834, P. G. T. Beauregard was admitted to the United States Military Academy and Americanized his name by removing the hyphen.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard graduated from the United States Military Academy, second in his class, in 1838 and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard served in the United States Army during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) and was wounded twice.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard served in the United States Army from 1838 to 1861.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard was promoted to the rank of captain in 1853.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard married Caroline Deslonde in 1860. Caroline died in New Orleans in March 1864.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard was superintendent of the United States Military Academy for five days, from January 23-28, 1861. After Louisiana seceded from the Union (January 26, 1861), he resigned from the position.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard resigned his commission from the United States Army on February 20, 1861.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard was commissioned as the first brigadier general in the Confederate Army on March 1, 1861.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard commanded the Confederate forces that fired on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard served as a corps commander and second-in-command of field operations at the First Battle of Bull Run (July 21, 1861), near Manassas, Virginia.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard was promoted to the rank of full general in the Confederate Army on August 31, 1861 (effective date, July 21, 1861).
  • Following the First Battle of Bull Run, P. G. T. Beauregard publicly criticized Confederate President Jefferson Davis’s war strategy, resulting in a personality conflict between the two men that lasted to the end of their lives and that probably stunted Beauregard’s military career.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard assumed command of the Confederate forces at the Battle of Shiloh (April 6-7, 1862) when General Albert S. Johnston was mortally wounded on April 6.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard was severely criticized for his controversial decision to halt the Confederate assault at the Battle of Shiloh (April 6-7, 1862) on the first day, thus allowing the Union army to launch a successful counterattack the next day after reorganizing and being reinforced overnight.
  • Confederate President Jefferson Davis relieved P. G. T. Beauregard of his command on June 27, 1862, because Beauregard went on sick leave without Davis’ approval.
  • On August 29, 1862, Beauregard was ordered to Charleston, South Carolina to command the Department of South Carolina and Georgia. For the next two years, he coordinated the defense of the Carolina and Georgia coast.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard commanded a Confederate force of 18,000 men that defeated Major General Benjamin Butler’s army of 30,000 soldiers at the Battle of Proctor’s Creek (May 12-14, 1864), ending Butler’s offensive against Richmond, Virginia.
  • From June 15-17, 1864, a small Confederate force of about 2,200 soldiers commanded by P. G. T. Beauregard held off repeated assaults by 16,000 Federals at the Second Battle of Petersburg until Robert E. Lee’s army arrived to defend the city.
  • On October 7, 1864, President Davis appointed P. G. T. Beauregard to command the Military Division of the West.
  • As commander the Military Division of the West, P. G. T. Beauregard was unable to stop William T. Sherman’s March to the Sea.
  • In 1865, P. G. T. Beauregard was relegated to second-in-command of the defense of the Carolina’s upon General Joseph Johnston’s return to active duty.
  • Following the American Civil War, P. G. T. Beauregard declined offers of high rank in the armies of Romania and Egypt.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard served as president of the New Orleans, Jackson, and Mississippi Railroad (1865-1870) and of the New Orleans and Carrollton Street Railway (1866-1876).
  • On July 4, 1868, President Andrew Johnson extended amnesty to a group of Confederate leaders, including P. G. T. Beauregard.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard participated in the formation of the Reform Party in Louisiana, a coalition of moderate Democrats who supported civil rights for African Americans.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard’s citizenship was completely restored by an act of Congress, which was signed by President Grant on July 24, 1876 .
  • P. G. T. Beauregard served as commissioner of the Louisiana Lottery between 1877 and 1893.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard served as Adjutant General for the State of Louisiana from 1879 to 1888.
  • P. G. T. Beauregard was elected as New Orleans’ commissioner of public works in 1888.
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Citation Information

The following information is provided for citations.

  • Article Title PGT Beauregard — Facts and APUSH Notes
  • Coverage May 28, 1818–February 20, 1893
  • Author
  • Website Name American History Central
  • Access Date February 5, 2023
  • Publisher R.Squared Communications, LLC
  • Original Published Date
  • Date of Last Update February 2, 2023

PGT Beauregard — Facts and APUSH Notes is Part of the Following on AHC

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