Why was the Boston Port Act passed?
The Boston Port Act was one of the Coercive Acts passed by Parliament. In America, the laws were called the Intolerable Acts.
The purpose of the Coercive Acts was to punish the Province of Massachusetts Bay and the town of Boston for incidents like the Boston Tea Party.
The other Coercive Acts were:
What caused Parliament to pass laws like the Boston Port Act?
The strongest opposition to British legislation in colonial America came from the town of Boston, Massachusetts, and the British government saw Boston as the source of the unrest throughout the colonies.
After the French and Indian War, Parliament started to pass laws that levied taxes on the colonies. Men like James Otis and Samuel Adams, who lived in Boston, were openly critical of the laws and believed Parliament did not have the right to levy taxes on the colonies. Their main argument was Parliament was levying taxes against the colonies, but the colonies had no representatives in Parliament. Their rallying cry was “no taxation without representation.”
Despite the resistance, Parliament continued to pass laws that levied taxes and further encroached on the rights of the colonists. In 1773, the Tea Act was passed, which gave preferential treatment to the East India Company and threatened merchants in the colonies who sold tea.
On December 16, 1773, a group of men staged a protest in Boston by boarding ships docked in Boston Harbor. Once they were on board, they dragged chests of tea from the hold, broke them open, and dumped the contents in the harbor. The event became known as the Boston Tea Party.
The ships, the Beaver, the Eleanor, and the Dartmouth were all privately owned. The East India Company did not own them, it only owned the chests of tea.
At that point, the British government had had enough with the troublemakers in Boston and decided to crack down on the unrest.
The solution was the Coercive Acts, including the Boston Act.
When was the Boston Port Act proposed?
The idea of closing the Port of Boston was proposed by Lord North on March 14, 1774. The bill itself was introduced on March 18, 1774.
When was the Boston Port Act passed?
The British Parliament passed the Boston Port Act on March 25, 1774. It received Royal Assent from the King on May 31.
“His Majesty being seated on the Throne, adorned with his Crown and regal ornaments, and attended by his officers of State, (the Lords being in their robes,) the Commons with their Speaker, attending; the Royal assent was pronounced severally, by the Clerk’ s Assistant, to thirty-nine Bills, beginning with the Boston Port Bill.”
When did the Port Act start?
The Boston Port Act went into effect on June 1, 1774.
What was the official title of the Boston Port Act?
The official name of the Boston Port Act was “An act to discontinue, in such manner, and for such time as are therein mentioned, the landing and discharging, shipping of goods, wares, and merchandise, at the town, and within the harbour, of Boston, in the province of Massachusetts Bay, in North America.”
What was the Boston Port Act of 1774?
The Boston Port Act was the first of the five Coercive Acts.
What was the purpose of the Boston Port Act?
The purpose of the Boston Port Act was to punish the people of Boston for the Boston Tea Party.
What did the Boston Port Act do?
It closed Boston Harbor.
It moved all customs officials out of Boston and up to Marblehead, at the Port of Salem.
It gave authority to British officials to use whatever means to remove ships from the harbor. If a ship was asked to leave the harbor and did not comply within six hours, the ship could be seized and the entire contents were forfeited.
Ships transporting food, fuel, and anything to be used by the British into Boston were allowed, but only if they had a pass, had been searched by customs officers at Marblehead, in the port of Salem, and if a customs officer accompanied the ship from Marblehead to Boston. The customs officer was authorized to bring as many armed men with him as he felt were necessary for his safety.
Any ship that was in the harbor on June 1 was given 14 days to depart.
After June 1, any contracts that were agreed to for shipping in and out of the harbor were null and void.
What did the Boston Port Act prevent?
The Boston Port Act prevented products and goods from being shipped in and out of Boston Harbor. It applied to products and goods for the entire Province of Massachusetts Bay, and not just Boston.
It also kept the people of Boston from sailing to islands in Boston Harbor, where livestock was kept and crops were grown.
How was the Boston Port Act Enforced?
The British enforced the Boston Port Act by using the Navy to set up a blockade of Boston Harbor and troops were troops were placed on shore to patrol the area.
Where was the Boston Port Act Enforced?
The Boston Port Act was enforced in the waters and shore around Boston Harbor, including the islands in the harbor. The act specifically banned ships from loading and unloading goods in any
“…quay, wharf, or other place, within the said town of Boston, or in or upon any part of the shore of the bay, commonly called The Harbour of Boston, between a certain headland or point called Nahant Point, on the eastern side of the entrance into the said bay, and a certain other headland or point called Alderton Point, on the western side of the entrance into the said bay, or in or upon any island, creek, landing place, bank, or other place, within the said bay or headlands…”
What was the punishment for violating the Boston Port Act?
Any British official caught taking or receiving a bribe was fined 500 pounds for each offense and barred from holding a position in the military or government.
Anyone caught offering a bribe was fined 50 pounds for each offense.
Any ship that was caught smuggling products and goods into the harbor could be taken by the British authorities. The owner of the ship would lose it and everything on it, including personal or company property.
If any ship was able to land and unload its cargo, anyone who was caught transporting the cargo would lose the cargo and anything they used to move it, including wagons, horses, and cattle.
Where were court cases for violations of the Boston Port Act held?
All court cases of violators went before the Vice-Admiralty Court, as defined by prior legislation, including the Sugar Act of 1774, and the Navigation Acts.
While most colonies had local Vice-Admiralty Courts, British officials could choose to have their case heard by the Vice-Admiralty Court in Nova Scotia. Some officials would choose the court in Nova Scotia if they thought the local court would rule against them, or if they thought the defendant would fail to appear before the court. If the defendant failed to appear, the court ruled in favor of the British official.
How long was the Boston Port Act supposed to last?
The restrictions set out in the Boston Port Act were supposed to last until King George III felt that order had been restored, trade could be safely conducted, and customs officials could collect duties.
As part of showing that order had been restored, the people of Boston were responsible for:
- Reimbursing the East India Company for the damages.
- Reimbursing customs officials for revenue they lost due to the “riots and insurrections” that occurred in November and December of 1773, and in January of 1774.
When was the Boston Port Act repealed?
The Boston Port Act was repealed in 1783. The Prohibitory Act of 1775 was repealed at the same time. The repeal of both acts allowed trade to begin again between Britain, its territories, and the United States.
How did the Boston Port Act affect the colonists?
The Boston Port Act affected the colonists in Massachusetts by taking away their access to goods and services that they could only acquire through shipping.
What was the social impact of the Boston Port Act?
The Boston Port Act increased distrust in the British government not only in Massachusetts, but also throughout the colonies, and strengthened the resistance to British policies.
On May 13, 1774, the Massachusetts Committee of Correspondence sent a letter to the other colonies, informing them of the impending shutdown of the harbor. The letter, which was written by Samuel Adams, warned the other colonies that the same thing could happen to them unless they surrendered their “sacred rights and liberties into the hands of” the British government.
Adams asked the other colonies if they supported Boston and would join the town and Massachusetts in suspending trade with Britain. Adams asked them to send a letter to let Massachusetts know how they stood.
Not only did the other colonies respond with letters affirming their support of Boston and Massachusetts, but they also sent food and supplies to the town.
On August 15, 1774, one of the more well-known acts of support for Boston occurred when Israel Putnam drove a herd of sheep from his farm in Connecticut to the town to help feed the people.
What was the political impact of the Boston Port Act?
The Boston Port Act made it clear to other towns and colonies that the British government could punish them in the same way, at any time, for any reason.
What was the economic impact of the Boston Port Act?
The first Coercive Act, the Boston Port Act, closed the Port of Boston to most imports, which had a significant impact on the economy of the entire colony. Merchants were not able to stock their shelves with goods and people lost their jobs.
The situation was made worse by the second Coercive Act, the Massachusetts Government Act, which revoked the colony’s charter and placed it under complete control of the British. Under this act, the people lost their right to elect officials that could help them reverse the legislation.
How did the colonists react to the Boston Port Act?
The Committee of Correspondence in Massachusetts responded by sending a circular letter to the other colonies, asking for their support and for a boycott of British goods.
Why was the Boston Port Act Unfair?
The Boston Port Act punished the entire population of Boston and Massachusetts for the actions of a few troublemakers. It was simply unfair to enact legislation that harmed farmers and merchants in towns like Falmouth or Worcester that were far away from Boston, which is where most of the resistance, rhetoric, and propaganda about British policy came from.
Why was the Boston Port Act Significant?
The Boston Port Act and the other Coercive Acts were an important step towards independence because they provided further ammunition for a growing radical element in the colonies and prompted the calling of the First Continental Congress on September 5, 1774.