The American Civil War — The War Between the States

1861–1865

The United States of America was divided from 1861 to 1865 in a devastating, destructive conflict known as the American Civil War. America was divided over economic issues that escalated into disagreements over States’ Rights and slavery, leading southern states to secede and form the Confederate States of America. The United States responded with force to maintain the union, and the Confederacy responded in kind.

Civil War Overview, 1861 to 1865, Facts, Significance, APUSH, AHC Original

Abraham Lincoln by George P. A. Healy, 1869. Image Source: White House Historical Association.

1861 — The Civil War Begins

The war started on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. For a detailed look at 1862, we have compiled a timeline of events that took place from January to June 1862 and July to December 1862.

The Secession Crisis

Following the election of Abraham Lincoln as President, South Carolina seceded from the Union in December. Six more states — Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana — quickly followed suit. On February 4, 1861, they established the Confederate States of America in Montgomery, Alabama.

Soon after, Southern states started taking control of Federal forts and installations. President James Buchanan refused to surrender them and many were taken by force, including forts like Fort Johnson in Charleston, South Carolina, Fort Pulaski and Fort Jackson in Savannah, Georgia, and the Federal arsenal at Apalachicola, Florida.

The Civil War Begins in Charleston Harbor at Fort Sumter

On March 4, 1861, Abraham Lincoln was sworn in as the 16th President of the United States. Just over a month later, on April 12, 1861, Confederate forces led by P.G.T. Beauregard attacked Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina’s harbor. Union forces surrendered on April 13, with the formal surrender occurring on April 14, ending the Battle of Fort Sumter

Battle of Fort Sumter, 1861, View from Charleston
The Battle of Fort Sumter was seen from rooftops in Charleston, South Carolina. Image Source: Harper’s Weekly, May 4, 1861.

President Lincoln Calls for Volunteers

On April 15, President Lincoln issued a proclamation, asking for 75,000 volunteers from the Northern states, with a three-month enlistment period. 

After Winfield Scott offered him command of the Union army on April 20, Robert E. Lee declined, as he refused to bear arms against his home state, Virginia. 

Two days later, Lee was appointed to lead Virginia’s military forces.

Robert E. Lee, General, CSA, Illustration
General Robert E. Lee (CSA). Image Source: Frank Leslie’s Scenes and Portraits of the Civil War, 1894.

The First Battle of Bull Run

The Civil War’s first major conflict occurred on July 21, 1861, at Manassas Junction, Virginia. General Irvin McDowell led Union forces against Confederate troops commanded by Joseph E. Johnston and P.G.T. Beauregard. 

Although the initial advance succeeded, the arrival of Confederate reinforcements shifted the course of the battle, and McDowell’s troops were forced to retreat to Washington. D.C. 

First Battle of Bull Run, 1861, Union Troops Advancing
This illustration depicts advancing to the battlefield during the First Battle of Bull Run. Image Source: Frank Leslie’s Scenes and Portraits of the Civil War, 1894.

Soon after, George B. McClellan replaced McDowell. 

Also in July, the Union Navy initiated a blockade of Southern ports — a strategy known as the “Anaconda Plan.” This prompted the Confederacy to seek aid from foreign powers, including Great Britain, to break the naval blockades.

The First Federal Income Tax

On August 1, 1861, the United States Congress passed the first national income tax law, imposing a 3% tax on incomes exceeding $800. The tax was scheduled to become effective on January 1, 1862. While the tax was not actively enforced and underwent revisions, its establishment held significant historical significance. 

The Union Orders Ironclads

In August, orders were placed for ironclad gunboats designed by James B. Eads of St. Louis. 

In another part of Missouri, Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant assumed command of the District of Ironton. 

Ulysses S. Grant, General, USA, Civil War, HW
General Ulysses S. Grant (USA). Image Source: Harper’s Weekly, December 9, 1865.

Raid at the Pensacola Naval Yard

In September, the first major naval engagement of the war unfolded as Union Lieutenant J.H. Russell conducted a raid on a Confederate navy yard in Pensacola, Florida, destroying a privateer.

McClellan Succeeds Winfield Scott

In November 1861, President Lincoln, seeking a more effective leader for the Union armies, replaced Winfield Scott — the hero of the Mexican-American War — with George B. McClellan. 

The following week, on November 7, the Union Navy gained another significant victory by capturing two Confederate forts situated on Port Royal Sound in South Carolina. These forts would serve as strategic bases for launching coastal attacks.

1862 — Year Two

In 1862, Confederate armies gained significant victories in the Eastern Theater, however, the Union kept pace in the Western Theater and Southern Theater of the war. For a detailed look at 1862, we have compiled a timeline of events that took place from January to June 1862 and July to December 1862.

In early 1862, Union forces in the Western Theater launched a flanking maneuver. Ulysses S. Grant and Commodore Andrew J. Foote led the campaign, targeting Confederate installations along the Mississippi River. 

Fort Henry and Fort Donelson

The campaign commenced with Union forces capturing Fort Henry on the Tennessee River on February 6. On the 16th, Grant’s forces seized Fort Donelson near Nashville after a four-day siege. Confederate forces abandoned Nashville on February 25th as Grant and his troops advanced.

Union Forces Struggle in the Eastern Theater

While Grant found success in the West, Union forces faced challenges in the East. 

In March, the Union Monitor and Confederate Merrimac clashed in the first ironclad warship battle. The Monitor withdrew after five hours of combat. 

Soon after, Lincoln relieved McClellan of his role as general-in-chief, although he still commanded the Army of the Potomac. 

Later in the month, Confederate General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson started the Shenandoah Valley Campaign in Virginia.

McClellan’s Peninsula Campaign

In April, the Union army initiated the Peninsula Campaign, aiming to seize the Confederate capital in Richmond, Virginia. Under McClellan, the Army of the Potomac advanced toward Yorktown, Virginia, located on the peninsula between the James River and York River. 

Shiloh

Meanwhile, in the West, Confederate forces under Albert Sidney Johnston launched an attack on Grant’s troops at Pittsburgh Landing, Tennessee, resulting in the Battle of Shiloh. After two days of intense fighting, the Confederates were forced to retreat on April 7. The casualties were significant, with 13,000 for the North and 11,000 for the South. 

Battle of Shiloh, 1862, April 7, Union Advance at Shiloh Chapel
This illustration depicts the Union advance at Shiloh Chapel on April 7. Image Source: Frank Leslie’s Scenes and Portraits of the Civil War, 1894.

Capture of New Orleans

Following the Battle of Shiloh, Union naval forces successfully reclaimed Fort Pulaski in Georgia. Then, on April 25, Admiral David Farragut gained control of New Orleans.

The Battle of Seven Pines

The Peninsula Campaign initially succeeded with Union troops capturing Yorktown and Williamsburg. They paused near White House, Virginia, just under 20 miles from Richmond. 

Confederate forces launched an attack on a portion of McClellan’s army in the Battle of Seven Pines. The arrival of Union reinforcements averted a potential disaster for the North, leading to the withdrawal of Southern troops. General Joseph E. Johnston suffered severe wounds in the battle, prompting Jefferson Davis to search for a replacement.

Battle of Seven Pines, 1862, Union Charge
Battle of Seven Pines. Image Source: Harper’s Weekly, June 21, 1862.

The Seven Days Battles

On June 2, 1862, Robert E. Lee assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia. By the month’s end, Lee moved to force McClellan from the Peninsula and distance him from Richmond. Lee succeeded, in what became known as the Seven Days Battles

The Union campaign concluded with the Army of the Potomac retreating to Harrison’s Landing on the James River, and Lee’s army withdrew to safeguard Richmond. 

Changes in Union Leadership

In early July, seeking an effective commander for Union forces, General Henry W. Halleck was appointed general-in-chief, while Ulysses S. Grant remained in charge of the Army of West Tennessee.

Abolitionists and Copperheads

Away from the war, President Lincoln encountered increasing calls for the emancipation of slaves. On July 22, 1862, Lincoln presented the initial draft of the Emancipation Proclamation to his cabinet. While the North was generally seen as anti-slavery, there were Southern sympathizers known as “Peace Democrats,” who opposed the war. However, on July 30, a Cincinnati newspaper coined a new term for them, referring to them as “Copperheads.”

Confederate Victories Paves the Way for Lee’s First Invasion of the North

In August, the Confederacy achieved further victories in the East. Stonewall Jackson defeated Union forces at Cedar Mountain, Virginia, on the 18th. 

Stonewall Jackson, General, CSA, Civil War, FL
General Stonewall Jackson (CSA). Image Source: Frank Leslie’s Scenes and Portraits of the Civil War, 1894.

Twelve days later, Jackson, along with Lee and James Longstreet, triumphed over Union forces led by General John Pope in the Second Battle of Bull Run near Manassas Junction, Virginia. 

These successes paved the way for Lee’s First Invasion of the North — also known as the Maryland Campaign.

On September 15, Stonewall Jackson’s reputation grew as his forces captured equipment and prisoners during the seizure of Harper’s Ferry, Maryland

Battle of Antietam

Two days later, Lee’s invasion encountered a setback at the Battle of Antietam, a brutal engagement resulting in over 10,000 casualties on both sides. Despite Lee’s withdrawal, McClellan chose not to pursue him, which disappointed President Lincoln. However, Lee’s retreat gave Lincoln what he needed to announce the Emancipation Proclamation.

Battle of Antietam, 1862, Union Bayonet Charge
A Union bayonet charge at the Battle of Antietam. Image Source: Frank Leslie’s Scenes and Portraits of the Civil War, 1894.

Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation

On September 23, 1862, the Emancipation Proclamation, granting freedom to slaves, was published in Northern newspapers, with an effective date of January 1, 1863.

In November, there were leadership changes in both armies. 

  1. November 5 — Lincoln replaced McClellan with Ambrose Burnside
  2. November 24 — Jefferson Davis reinstated Joseph E. Johnston as the commander of the Army in the West. 

Despite their intentions, neither change altered the course of events. 

Fredericksburg and Stones River

In December, Burnside’s forces suffered a defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg. In the West, the Battle of Stones River temporarily halted the Union’s advance on Chattanooga, however, the pause did not last long.

Santa Claus Visiting Union Troops, December 1862
This illustration depicts Santa Claus visiting Union troops. Image Source: Harper’s Weekly, January 3, 1863.

1863 — Emancipation and Turning Points

The Civil War turned in favor of the Union in 1863 with dramatic — and costly — victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg. For a detailed look at 1863, we have compiled a timeline of events that took place from January to June 1863 and July to December 1863.

On January 1, 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation went into effect, declaring slaves living in states and territories that were “in rebellion” were free. 

Emancipation Proclamation, 1863, Freed Slaves at New Berne, NC, HW
This illustration depicts slaves freed by the Emancipation Proclamation crossing over Union lines at New Bern, North Carolina. Image Source: Harper’s Weekly, February 21, 1863.

Hooker Replaces Burnside

Later that month, Lincoln replaced Ambrose Burnside with General Joseph Hooker to lead the Army of the Potomac.

Vicksburg Campaign

On January 30, Ulysses S. Grant started the Vicksburg Campaign, intending to seize control of the Mississippi River. In April, Grant transported his troops across the river, and on May 1, he secured a victory over Confederate forces at Port Gibson, Mississippi.

Chancellorsville and the Death of Stonewall Jackson

In the East, the South maintained its success. Lee defeated Hooker at the Battle of Chancellorsville, resulting in both sides enduring over 10,000 casualties. However, there was one significant casualty for the Confederacy — Stonewall Jackson. While scouting Union forces after sunset, Jackson was accidentally shot by his men. His injuries led to the loss of his arm and, soon after, his life, when he contracted pneumonia and passed away.

Copperhead Leader Banished

In Ohio, Copperhead leader Clement Vallandigham was arrested on May 2. He faced a court-martial, and while he was sentenced, his punishment was later commuted, and President Lincoln exiled him.

Mississippi Falls to the Union

On May 14, 1863, Jackson, Mississippi, fell to Union forces led by William T. Sherman and James B. McPherson. On the 16th and 17th, Grant secured victories at Champion Hill and Big Black River Bridge, marking the final battles of the Vicksburg Campaign. 

On May 22, the Siege of Vicksburg started, lasting until early July. It ended on July 4 when Grant demanded “immediate and unconditional surrender.” 

Siege of Vicksburg, 1863, June 27, Fort Hill Crater, FL 318
This illustration depicts the Siege of Vicksburg on June 17. Image Source: Frank Leslie’s Scenes and Portraits of the Civil War, 1894.

This led to the surrender of 29,000 Confederate troops under the command of John C. Pemberton, granting the Union control of the Mississippi River.

Soon after, Port Hudson, Mississippi surrendered.

The High Water Mark of the Confederacy

Meanwhile, in the East, Robert E. Lee formulated a plan for a second invasion of the North — known as the Gettysburg Campaign. On June 24, he led his army back across the Potomac at Harper’s Ferry and headed toward Gettysburg.

The next day, Joseph Hooker resigned from his command due to conflicts with Henry Halleck, and General George G. Meade was named his replacement. 

A week later, Confederate and Union forces converged on the small town of Gettysburg. They engaged in a three-day battle in and around the town, fighting on various ridges and hills.

  1. On the first day of battle, Confederate troops pushed Union forces back but couldn’t capture well-fortified positions. 
  2. Meade arrived on the second day, and the Union held positions on the right and left flanks, including the famous bayonet charge by the 20th Maine at Little Round Top. 
  3. On the third day, Lee, determined to break the Union line, ordered troops to march across a nearly mile-wide field from Seminary Ridge to Cemetery Ridge. The Confederate advance began late in the afternoon and, despite suffering heavy losses as they crossed the field, they briefly reached the Union positions before being repulsed near a small cluster of trees and an angled stone wall on Cemetery Ridge. This attack, known as Pickett’s Charge, marked the “High Water Mark of the Confederacy.”
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863, July 2, Confederate Charge up Cemetery Hill, FL 335
This illustration depicts Confederates charging the Union position on Cemetery Hill on July 2. Image Source: Frank Leslie’s Scenes and Portraits of the Civil War, 1894.

The Tide Changes

Between Vicksburg in the West and Gettysburg in the East, it was indeed the beginning of the end of the Confederacy, but they would fight on for two more years. 

Riots in New York

Despite the success, anti-war sentiment in the North boiled over in rage against the Union Conscription Act. Riots broke out in New York, and people vandalized homes and lynched blacks before the riots were put down by Federal troops after four days.

New York Draft Riots, 1863, Burning Orphanage, HW
This illustration depicts rioters in New York burning an orphanage for black children. Image Source: Harper’s Weekly, August 1, 1863.

Battles for Chattanooga

In September, Confederate Braxton Bragg abandoned Chattanooga, a crucial rail center for the Southern supply chain. Federal troops, led by William S. Rosecrans, seized the city. Then, on September 19th, the Battle of Chickamauga began between Rosecrans and Bragg’s forces. 

On the second day of the battle, Union troops commanded by George H. Thomas took a stand, preventing a complete defeat and allowing the Federal army to retreat to Chattanooga. 

On October 16, Lincoln decided to appoint Grant as the leader of all Union forces in the West and replaced Rosecrans with Thomas in Chattanooga.

The Gettysburg Address

The national cemetery at Gettysburg was dedicated in November. On November 19, 1863, President Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address. In less than two minutes, he delivered one of the most important speeches — and recognized — in American history. 

Grant Splits the Confederacy

Less than a week later, the Union armies under Grant’s leadership attacked Confederate forces on Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, sweeping the Confederate troops away from Chattanooga. The South was now split vertically and the Union army could plan an advance through Georgia and attempt to split the Confederacy horizontally.

Battle of Lookout Mountain, 1863, View from Union Works, HW
This illustration depicts Lookout Mountain as seen from Union defensive works on Chattanooga Creek. Image Source: Harper’s Weekly, November 14, 1863.

1864

Ulysses S. Grant took command of the Union army in 1864, leading the effort to subdue Robert E. Lee’s forces. For a detailed look at 1864, we have compiled a timeline of events that took place from January to April, May to August, and September to December 1864.

On March 10, 1864, Ulysses S. Grant replaced Henry Halleck as the Union armies’ commander. Lincoln assured Grant of non-interference and urged him to utilize the armies effectively.

Lincoln expected Grant to act decisively, unlike his predecessors. One of Grant’s initial actions was ending prisoner exchanges to reduce the number of men available to the Southern armies.

Grant and Sherman Advance

In early May, Grant and George Meade crossed the Rapidan River in Virginia with 100,000 men, heading towards Richmond.

The next day, William T. Sherman led his 110,000 men from Chattanooga toward Georgia to confront Joseph E. Johnston’s forces, with Atlanta as his objective.

This marked the beginning of the Overland Campaign and the Atlanta Campaign

William T. Sherman, General, USA, Civil War, HW
General William T. Sherman (USA). Image Source: Harper’s Weekly, June 4, 1863.

Overland Campaign

Grant and Lee’s forces clashed in the Wilderness and at Spotsylvania, where Grant aimed to maintain the line and wear down Lee’s army. 

Atlanta Campaign

Meanwhile, Sherman was advancing towards Atlanta, with Johnston’s forces consistently retreating before him. Johnston’s maneuvers were skilled and preserved his forces but ultimately led to him losing his command.

Battle of Cold Harbor

On June 3, 1863, the Battle of Cold Harbor began, and Grant ordered his forces to attack formidable Confederate positions, resulting in dire consequences. On this day alone, 12,000 Union soldiers were lost.

In less than two months, Grant’s forces had suffered over 60,000 casualties, while Lee’s army endured half that number. However, the losses were more severe for the South due to their dwindling manpower. Grant recognized his grave mistake at Cold Harbor.

Battle of Cold Harbor, 1864, June 1, Union Advance, FL 387
Battle of Cold Harbor. Image Source: Frank Leslie’s Scenes and Portraits of the Civil War, 1894.

Siege of Petersburg

Two weeks later, Lee thwarted a Union advance on Petersburg, prompting Grant to initiate a siege of the city. 

Early’s Raid and a Change in Confederate Command

The Confederates briefly succeeded in slowing Sherman’s progress at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, and through a raid led by Jubal Early into Maryland. However, Early was pushed back by General Lew Wallace, and Johnston was replaced by John Bell Hood, who launched an offensive against Sherman.

On July 22, Hood attacked Sherman and incurred heavy losses at the Battle of Atlanta. He repeated the attack on July 28, with the same outcome at the Battle of Ezra Church.

Battle of Ezra Church, 1864, Union Defenses, HW
Battle of Ezra Church. Image Source: Harper’s Weekly, August 27, 1864.

Battle of the Crater

On July 30, 1864, following a plan formulated by Ambrose Burnside, Union forces dug a tunnel beneath the Confederate lines outside Petersburg and loaded it with explosives.

When the explosives detonated, it ruptured the line but also formed a large crater. Instead of circumventing it, Union forces advanced into the crater, resulting in a situation where they suffered heavy casualties, with 4,000 men lost.

As a consequence, Burnside was relieved of his duties, while the Siege of Petersburg persisted.

Battle of the Crater, 1864, Union Charge on Cemetery Hill, HW
This illustration depicts Union forces rushing Cemetery Hill at the Battle of the Crater. Image Source: Harper’s Weekly, August 6, 1864.

The Window Starts to Close on the Confederacy

As the Confederacy faced starvation and dwindling supplies, Admiral David Farragut seized the port at Mobile Bay, Alabama, on August 23, further constricting the Southern supply lines. 

Then, on September 1, John Bell Hood retreated from Atlanta, allowing Sherman to enter the city the next day. With Lee besieged in Petersburg and Hood in Georgia, forces led by Jubal Early had more freedom in the East. 

Grant placed Philip Sheridan in command of a force to pursue Early, leading to engagements at Winchester Creek and Cedar Creek. 

Battle of Cedar Creek, 1864, Sheridan Riding to the Front, HW
This illustration depicts General Sheridan riding to the front at the Battle of Cedar Creek. Image Source: Harper’s Weekly, November 5, 1864.

Lincoln Re-Elected as President

These developments and Union victories contributed to Abraham Lincoln’s re-election on November 8, 1864, albeit with a narrow margin of less than half a million votes over George McClellan.

Sherman’s March to the Sea

Following the election, Sherman embarked on his famous March to the Sea, moving toward Savannah and leaving destruction in his wake. 

In Nashville, John Bell Hood launched an attack in an attempt to sever Sherman’s supply line, but his forces suffered severe losses over two days. 

On December 22, Sherman reached Savannah, successfully splitting the Confederacy into two parts horizontally.

1865

On April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, marking the effective conclusion of the Civil War. For a detailed look at 1865, we have compiled a timeline of events that took place for the entire year.

Carolinas Campaign

With the Confederacy divided its surrender became inevitable. While Grant recognized this, Sherman continued to pressure Southern forces, advancing through North Carolina on his Carolinas Campaign.

Back on the battlefield, Columbia, South Carolina, was nearly entirely consumed by fire on February 17. Sherman occupied Charleston on February 18. Five days later, Union forces seized the last Confederate port, Wilmington, North Carolina.

A Desperate Confederacy

On March 2, Lee sought negotiations with Lincoln, but the request was declined. Lincoln insisted that the South surrender first. 

Two days later, Lincoln’s second inauguration took place. 

Abraham Lincoln, Second Inauguration, 1865, March 4, HW
This illustration depicts President Lincoln’s inauguration. Image Source: Harper’s Weekly, March 18, 1865.

On March 13, in an attempt to bolster their cause, Jefferson Davis signed a bill permitting slaves to enlist in the Confederate army, with the promise of earning their freedom through service.

Battle of Fort Stedman

On March 25, in an attempt to break Grant’s grip on Petersburg, the Confederates launched a nighttime assault on Fort Stedman along the defensive line outside the city. However, the assault failed as Union forces were overwhelming in number and well-armed with ample ammunition. 

Battle of Fort Stedman, 1865, Confederate Attack, HW
This illustration depicts the Confederate assault at the Battle of Fort Stedman. Image Source: Harper’s Weekly, April 15, 1865.

Two days later, President Lincoln convened a meeting with Grant and Sherman to deliberate on the terms of surrender that the Confederates should be offered.

Battle of Five Forks

Philip Sheridan continued to defeat Confederate forces across Virginia, culminating in the last significant battle of the war at Five Forks, Virginia, on April 1

Petersburg and Richmond Fall to Union Forces

The next day, Lee withdrew his troops from Petersburg and recommended to Jefferson Davis that the government evacuate Richmond. On April 3, Union troops entered Petersburg and Richmond.

Lee Surrenders — with Respect and Compassion

With the Confederate army encircled, Grant proposed surrender terms to Lee, who in turn requested the details of surrender. On April 9, 1863, Grant and Lee convened at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, at the residence of Wilmer and Virginia McLean, shortly after 1:30 in the afternoon. Their meeting lasted about 90 minutes and concluded with Lee’s surrender. 

Surrender at Appomattox, 1865, McLean House, HW
This illustration depicts the McLean House at Appomattox, where Lee surrendered to Grant. Image Source: Harper’s Weekly, November 4, 1865.

While there was brief skirmishing afterward, the Civil War, for all practical purposes, came to an end.

The surrender terms were generous. Both officers and enlisted men were allowed to return home with their horses and firearms. All other military equipment was surrendered. 

Grant presented the terms to Lee in a letter, although they were adjusted somewhat during their discussions. The intention was to treat the Confederates with dignity and respect. Additionally, Grant arranged for rations to be provided to the hungry Confederate soldiers.

The Confederacy’s Last Victory — Lincoln Assassinated

On April 11, President Lincoln delivered his final public address. 

Three days later, while attending the play “Our American Cousin” at Ford’s Theater in Washington, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth.

Lincoln Assassination, 1865, April 14, Booth Escaping Ford's Theater, HW
This illustration depicts Booth escaping from Ford’s Theater. Image Source: Harper’s Weekly, April 29, 1865.

Lincoln passed away the following day. Just three hours after Lincoln’s death, Andrew Johnson was sworn in as the 17th President of the United States

On April 26, Booth was cornered in a barn in Bowling Green, Virginia, and shot.

With Lincoln gone, the job of rebuilding the nation through Reconstruction — and incorporating newly freed slaves — fell to President Johnson.

The Last Chattel, 1866, Harper's Weekly
The Last Chattel. Image Source: Harper’s Weekly, January 6, 1866.

Citation Information

The following information is provided for citations.

  • Article Title The American Civil War — The War Between the States
  • Date 1861–1865
  • Author
  • Keywords American Civil War, Civil War History, Civil War Overview, Civil War Key Moments
  • Website Name American History Central
  • Access Date February 27, 2024
  • Publisher R.Squared Communications, LLC
  • Original Published Date
  • Date of Last Update January 12, 2024

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