Era of Good Feelings Summary
The Era of Good Feelings was a period in American history that started with unity and nationalism in the wake of the War of 1812. In 1816, James Monroe, a Democratic-Republican, won a landslide victory against the Federalist candidate, Rufus King, signaling the decline of the Federalist Party, which had opposed the War of 1812. During Monroe’s first term, he traveled the nation, wearing his military uniform from the American Revolutionary War, rallying support for uniting the nation. Monroe’s first term was highlighted by economic growth, but the second term was plagued by Sectionalism, an economic depression, and division within his own political party. Due to the Election of 1824, Andrew Jackson and his supporters became the Democratic Party, ending the Era of Good Feelings and ushering in the Jacksonian Era.
Era of Good Feelings Facts
- The Era of Good Feelings was a period in American history from 1815 to 1824. It followed the Jeffersonian Era and preceded the Jacksonian Era.
- The Era of Good Feelings was marked by a sense of nationalism and patriotism following the War of 1812 and the signing of the Treaty of Ghent.
- The dominant political parties during this time were the Federalists, who favored a strong federal government, and the Democratic-Republicans, who supported a more limited government. However, the time period saw the decline of the Federalists, leaving the Democratic-Republicans as the only true political party.
- President James Monroe played an important role in diminishing the Federalist Party and promoting unity among Americans through his policies and tours across the country.
- The Era of Good Feelings was short-lived, as Sectionalism and the Presidential election of 1824 led to the emergence of new parties division that eventually led to the Civil War.
Era of Good Feelings History and Overview
The Era of Good Feelings started when the Treaty of Ghent went into effect in February 1815, ending the War of 1812. Although the war itself was a stalemate, Americans referred to it as the “Second War for Independence” and celebrated General Andrew Jackson’s victory over British forces at the Battle of New Orleans (January 8, 1815).
Nationalism and Prosperity Usher in the Era of Good Feelings
For the second time in less than 50 years, The United States had gone to war with Great Britain and held its own. In the aftermath, the nation was filled with a growing sense of pride and nationalism. As a result, Americans looked to raise the profile of the United States on the world stage and looked in a new direction for leadership.
The Hartford Convention
Near the end of the War of 1812, Federalists — the party of Adams and Hamilton — held the Hartford Convention (1814–1815). During the Convention, which was largely attended by New England Federalists who opposed the War of 1812, several ideas were discussed — including secession and changes to the Constitution. The Convention was highly controversial and Jackson’s victory at New Orleans made any demands the Convention made a moot point.
The American System
The Convention is widely viewed as an unpopular, misguided attempt by Federalists that bordered on treason. In the wake of the party’s collapse, the feud with Democratic-Republicans ended, allowing President James Madison and Henry Clay to move ahead and implement the main components of the “American System” — protective tariffs, building roads and canals to connect the nation, and the establishment of a new national bank.
The first protective tariff was the Tariff of 1816, which added a 25% tax on all wool and cotton goods that were imported into the United States from foreign nations. Unfortunately, the Tariff of 1816 was viewed as detrimental to the South and may have helped suppress the development of manufacturing in those states.
Two of the most well-known infrastructure projects were the construction of the National Road and the Erie Canal. The National Road project started in 1811 in Cumberland, Maryland, and moved westward, following the military road that was opened by the Braddock Expedition during the French and Indian War. Work on the Erie Canal started in 1817 and finished in 1825. Both projects helped connect different parts of the country and helped expand the economy.
The third piece of the system was the Second Bank of the United States, which succeeded the First Bank of the United States. The Federal Government established the bank in 1816 to help stabilize the economy. The bank was given a 20-year charter but quickly created financial issues that contributed to the Panic of 1819.
Monroe Wins the Presidential Election of 1816
James Monroe, a Democratic-Republican, succeeded Madison as President. Monroe easily won the Election of 1816, defeating the Federalist Party candidate, Rufus King. King’s defeat was essentially the end of the Federalist Party.
Monroe’s Goodwill Tour
Following his election, Monroe embarked on a goodwill tour designed to decrease regional divisions that had emerged during the War of 1812. Following Monroe’s visit to Boston, the phrase “Era of Good Feelings” was coined by Benjamin Russell, and first appeared in the Federalist newspaper, Columbian Sentinel, on July 12, 1817.
A Soaring Economy Leads to the Panic of 1819
During the Era of Good Feelings, the American economy experienced a significant boom. However, land speculation was rampant, fueled by the expansion of banking and the creation of the Second Bank of the United States. Cotton prices soared, leading to increased production and economic growth. Unfortunately, the economic boom created challenges. The Panic of 1819 created an economic recession that lasted into the 1820s, causing a decline in economic prosperity.
Sectionalism and the Party System
The beginning of the era brought an end to the Federalist Party and the old First Party System. It allowed Monroe to essentially run unopposed for re-election in 1820 and win the Presidential Election of 1820. However, his last term in office saw the return of political division as the nation expanded geographically and differences rose over slavery and the rights of States. By the end of the era, the division within the Democratic-Republican Party helped shape the Second Party System, bringing an end to the unity that marked the beginning of the Era of Good Feelings.
McCulloch v. Maryland, an Important Decision by the Marshall Court
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) was one of the landmark court cases of the era. In an effort to support state banks, Maryland levied taxes on the Second Bank of the United States. When the Bank refused to pay, Maryland filed a lawsuit in Federal Court. The case made its way to the Supreme Court and Chief Justice John Marshall. The Supreme Court ruled the Bank had been incorporated by the Federal Government, pursuant to Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution — the “Necessary and Proper Clause.”
The Missouri Compromise Maintains an Uneasy Balance
The Missouri Compromise (1820) became a defining moment for the Era of Good Feelings. The admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state was intended to maintain a balance between the slave states and free states in the Union. However, the debate over the expansion of slavery and the disagreements over the practice foreshadowed the Sectionalism that would shape American politics in the years to come, leading to the Secession Crisis and Civil War.
The United States Establishes the Monroe Doctrine
In 1823, Monroe took action to establish the United States as a leader in the Western Hemisphere by establishing the “Monroe Doctrine.” Monroe warned European powers not to interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. The purpose of the Doctrine was to prevent European colonization and the establishment of puppet regimes in the Americas. Although the Doctrine was not well-enforced early on, it became a basic tenet of American foreign policy.
The Election of 1824 Leads to the Age of Jackson
In the Election of 1824, there were multiple candidates for President, including John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, and Henry Clay — and they were all Democratic-Republicans. While John C. Calhoun was elected Vice-President, the election for the President went to the House of Representatives. Adams emerged as the winner — and appointed Clay as his Secretary of State. The move enraged Jackson and his supporters, who believed Adams and Clay conspired against them. The Jacksonians called it the “Corrupt Bargain.” The perception of a backroom political deal helped fuel the divide in the Democratic-Republican Party. In 1828, Andrew Jackson won the Presidency, ushering in the Age of Jackson, also known as the Jacksonian Era.
Era of Good Feelings Significance
The Era of Good Feelings is important to United States history because it was the time when the United States started to experience Sectionalism due to slavery, economics, and political parties. Although the time period started on a high note following the War of 1812, it ended in a political division that led to the emergence of Andrew Jackson as a candidate for President.
Era Of Good Feelings Frequently Asked Questions
The emergence of the Era of Good Feelings after the War of 1812 can be attributed to several factors. First, the war marked a sense of national pride and unity among Americans, leading to a surge of patriotic sentiments. The Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war, further strengthened the nation’s confidence and heightened its nationalism. Additionally, the election of James Monroe as president in 1816, with his message of national harmony, played a crucial role in fostering a sense of unity and optimism in the country.
The Second Bank of the United States, chartered in 1816, had a significant impact on the economy during the Era of Good Feelings. It aimed to create a more stable currency system by regulating the money and credit supply. The bank facilitated economic growth by providing access to credit and promoting sound financial practices. It also helped regulate state banks and stabilize the national economy. However, the bank’s policies, particularly its pursuit of profit, contributed to inflation, speculation, and the eventual Panic of 1819, which resulted in an economic downturn.
The Missouri Compromise of 1820 was a significant legislative measure aimed at addressing the issue of slavery expansion in the United States. It allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state while admitting Maine as a free state, maintaining the balance of power between free and slave states in the Senate. Additionally, the compromise established the 36°30′ line as a dividing line between free and slave territories within the Louisiana Purchase. North of this line, slavery was prohibited, while south of it, it remained legal. The Missouri Compromise played a pivotal role in temporarily calming sectional tensions but also brought the deep divide over slavery in the United States to the forefront of the political landscape.
The Monroe Doctrine, introduced by President James Monroe in 1823, outlined American foreign policy regarding European involvement in the Western Hemisphere. It stated that the United States would consider any further colonization attempts by European powers in the Americas as acts of aggression. Additionally, the doctrine emphasized non-interference in the existing European colonies in the Western Hemisphere and asserted the United States’ commitment to neutrality in European conflicts. The Monroe Doctrine established a foundation for American hegemony in the Americas, aimed to limit European influence, and became a cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy.
The “Corrupt Bargain” refers to the alleged political deal struck between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay during the Election of 1824. After no candidate secured a majority in the Electoral College, the House of Representatives decided the outcome. Adams announced Clay as his choice for Secretary of State shortly after his victory in the House vote, which angered Andrew Jackson and his supporters. The perceived agreement plagued the Presidency of John Quincy Adams and fueled accusations of political manipulation. It contributed to the rise of Andrew Jackson and the emergence of a more partisan political era, ending the Era of Good Feelings.
The Era of Good Feelings AP US History (APUSH) Overview
This section provides terms, definitions, and Frequently Asked Questions about the Era of Good Feelings, including people, events, and programs. Also, be sure to look at our Guide to the AP US History Exam.
Era of Good Feelings APUSH Definition
The Era of Good Feelings refers to a period of relative political harmony and national unity in the United States that occurred from approximately 1817 to 1825. Taking place during James Monroe’s presidency, this era was characterized by a decline in partisan conflicts, with the Federalist Party losing influence. It was a time of economic growth, territorial expansion, and a sense of American nationalism. However, underlying tensions, such as sectional disputes over slavery, led to the emergence of new political parties.
The Era of Good Feelings Explained
This video from Heimler’s History includes an overview of the Era of Good Feelings for the AP US History exam.
Era of Good Feelings APUSH Terms and Definitions
Important People During the Era of Good Feelings
John C. Calhoun — John C. Calhoun was an American statesman and politician who served as the seventh Vice President of the United States from 1825 to 1832. He was a prominent defender of States’ Rights and slavery and played a significant role in the political debates of the early 19th century.
Henry Clay — Henry Clay was an American statesman and political leader who served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, the U.S. Senate, and the U.S. Secretary of State. Clay, who was a member of the Whig Party, is best known for his role in shaping U.S. foreign and domestic policy in the early 19th century. He is remembered for his advocacy of the American System, a plan for economic development that included a national bank, a protective tariff, and federal funding for infrastructure projects.
Andrew Jackson — Andrew Jackson was the seventh President of the United States, serving from 1829 to 1837. He was a military officer and politician from Tennessee who had a controversial and influential tenure as President. Jackson was known for his strong personality and his advocacy for a more democratic and representative government. He is best known for his role in the Indian Wars of the period and for his support for States’ Rights.
James Madison — James Madison was a Founding Father who played a crucial role in the drafting and ratification of the United States Constitution. Serving as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817, Madison is known for his contributions to the War of 1812 and for advocating for a strong central government. He is often referred to as the “Father of the Constitution.”
James Monroe — James Monroe was a Founding Father and the fifth president of the United States, serving from 1817 to 1825. Monroe is best known for his Monroe Doctrine, which asserted U.S. opposition to European colonization in the Americas and established the United States as the dominant power in the Western Hemisphere. His presidency was characterized by a period of national unity and economic growth known as the “Era of Good Feelings.”
War of 1812 and the Era of Good Feelings
War of 1812 — The War of 1812 — which some Americans referred to as the “Second War for Independence” — was fought between the United States and Great Britain from 1812 to 1815. The war was sparked by a variety of issues, including British interference with American trade and the impressment of American sailors by the British navy. The war was marked by several significant military engagements, including the Battle of Lake Erie and the Battle of New Orleans. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in 1815, ushering in the Era of Good Feelings.
Battle of New Orleans — The Battle of New Orleans was a military engagement that took place during the War of 1812. The battle, which was fought in January 1815, involved a force of British soldiers and a force of American soldiers led by Andrew Jackson. The American forces were victorious, leaving Americans with a sense they had won the “Second War for Independence.”
Treaty of Ghent (1815) — The Treaty of Ghent was a peace treaty that was signed in December 1814 between the United States and Great Britain to end the War of 1812. The treaty, which was negotiated in the Belgian city of Ghent, established the status quo ante bellum, meaning that the territory and boundaries of the two countries would be returned to their pre-war status. The treaty was ratified by both sides, but it did not take effect until after the Battle of New Orleans, which was fought after the treaty was signed. The United States formally ratified the treaty in 1815.
The American System and the Era of Good Feelings
American System — The American System was a plan for economic development that was proposed by Henry Clay and other members of the Whig Party in the early 19th century. The American System included a number of policy proposals, including the establishment of a national bank, the implementation of a protective tariff, and federal funding for infrastructure projects. The American System was designed to promote economic growth and development in the United States and became an important part of the political platform of the Whig Party.
Second Bank of the United States — The Second Bank of the United States was a national bank chartered by the U.S. Congress in 1816. The bank, which was established to serve as a central bank for the United States, was intended to regulate the national currency and provide financial stability. The bank was controversial, and its charter was not renewed when it expired in 1836, leading to the establishment of a decentralized banking system in the United States.
Erie Canal — The Erie Canal was a canal that was built in the early 19th century to connect the Great Lakes with the Hudson River in New York. The canal, which was completed in 1825, was a major engineering feat and played a significant role in the economic development of the United States. The canal, which allowed for the transportation of goods and people between the East Coast and the Midwest, helped to spur the growth of towns and cities along its route and facilitated the expansion of trade and commerce.
National Road (Cumberland Road) — The National Road, also known as the Cumberland Road, was a federally funded road that was built in the early 19th century to connect the East Coast of the United States with the Midwest. The road, which was authorized by the U.S. Congress in 1806, was the first major federally funded infrastructure project in the United States and played a significant role in the development of the country’s transportation system.
Nicholas Biddle — Nicholas Biddle was an American financier and political figure who served as the president of the Second National Bank of the United States from 1823 to 1836. Biddle, who was a strong advocate for the bank, played a significant role in shaping the bank’s policies and practices. He is remembered for his role in the controversy surrounding the bank’s charter and for his impact on the financial system of the United States.
Protective Tariff — A protective tariff is a tariff that is imposed on imported goods in order to protect domestic industries from foreign competition. Protective tariffs are designed to make imported goods more expensive than similar domestic products, which can help to promote domestic production and protect domestic jobs. Protective tariffs are a controversial policy tool and are often opposed by those who believe they lead to higher prices for consumers and can lead to trade disputes with other countries.
Robert Fulton and Steamboats — Robert Fulton was an American inventor and engineer who is best known for his development of the steamboat. Fulton, who is credited with building the first commercially successful steamboat, the Clermont, played a significant role in the development of the steam-powered transportation industry in the United States. His work helped to revolutionize transportation and played a key role in the growth and development of the country.
Tariff of 1816 — The Tariff of 1816 was a tariff, or tax on imported goods, enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1816. The tariff, which was one of the first to be imposed by the U.S. government, was intended to protect domestic industries from foreign competition and to provide revenue for the federal government. The tariff was controversial and was opposed by some who believed it would lead to higher prices for consumers.
Events During the Era of Good Feelings
Panic of 1819 — The Panic of 1819 was a financial crisis that occurred in the United States in the aftermath of the War of 1812. The crisis, which was triggered by a number of factors, including over-speculation and a downturn in international trade, led to a widespread economic depression and contributed to the recession that followed.
The Judicial System During the Era of Good Feelings
Implied Powers — Implied powers are powers that are not explicitly listed in the U.S. Constitution but are inferred from the broader powers granted to the federal government. Implied powers are a key aspect of the “elastic clause,” also known as the “necessary and proper clause,” which gives Congress the authority to pass any laws that are necessary and proper for carrying out its powers and duties. The concept of implied powers has been a source of controversy and debate in American politics, as it has been used to justify a broad range of federal actions and policies.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) — McCulloch v. Maryland was a landmark case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1819. The case arose when James McCulloch, the cashier of the Bank of the United States, was sued by the state of Maryland for failing to pay a tax on the bank’s operations. The Court, in a unanimous decision written by Chief Justice John Marshall, ruled that the state of Maryland did not have the authority to tax the Bank of the United States, as it was a federal institution. The decision in McCulloch v. Maryland established the principle that federal law takes precedence over state law.
Dartmouth College v. Woodford (1819) — Dartmouth College v. Woodford was a case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1819. The case arose when Daniel Woodford, the governor of New Hampshire, attempted to revoke the charter of Dartmouth College, which had been granted by the state of New Hampshire. The Court, in a unanimous decision written by Chief Justice John Marshall, ruled that the charter of Dartmouth College was a contract that could not be impaired by the state of New Hampshire. The decision in Dartmouth College v. Woodford established the principle of the “contract clause,” which protects contracts from being impaired by state action.
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) — Gibbons v. Ogden was a landmark case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1824. The case arose when Aaron Ogden, a steamboat operator, sued Thomas Gibbons, a rival steamboat operator, for violating a monopoly on steamboat traffic in New York state. The Court, in a unanimous decision written by Chief Justice John Marshall, ruled that the federal government had the authority to regulate interstate commerce and that the monopoly granted by the state of New York was invalid. The decision in Gibbons v. Ogden established the principle of federal supremacy in matters of interstate commerce.
Slavery During the Era of Good Feelings
Denmark Vesey — Denmark Vesey was an African American slave who planned a slave revolt in the United States in 1822. Vesey, who had purchased his freedom, was a leader in the African Methodist Episcopal Church and was deeply concerned about the plight of enslaved people in the United States. He was arrested and executed for his role in the planned revolt, which was thwarted before it could take place.
King Cotton — “King Cotton” was a slogan used to describe the economic dominance of the cotton industry in the southern United States in the 19th century. Cotton was the main cash crop of the southern states, and it played a central role in the economy and society of the region. The slogan was used to highlight the importance of the cotton industry to the South and the power that it wielded within the region.
Missouri Compromise (1820) — The Missouri Compromise was an agreement that admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state, and established the 36°30′ parallel as the dividing line between slave and free states in the Louisiana Purchase territory. The compromise was seen as a temporary solution to the issue of slavery expansion, but it ultimately contributed to the growing tensions between the North and South that led to the Civil War.
Peculiar Institution — The “Peculiar Institution” was a term used to describe slavery in the United States. The term was often used by defenders of slavery to emphasize the unique nature of the institution in the United States and to suggest that it was not a typical form of slavery. The peculiar institution of slavery was a major cause of conflict in the United States, and it played a central role in the Civil War and the abolition of slavery.
Slave Codes — Slave codes were laws that governed the lives of enslaved people in the United States. These laws varied from state to state, but they generally served to restrict the rights and freedoms of enslaved people and to reinforce the power of their owners. Slave codes prohibited enslaved people from owning property, learning to read or write, or traveling without permission. They also imposed severe penalties for any perceived violations of the codes, including whipping, branding, and execution. Slave codes were a key aspect of the institution of slavery in the United States and were a major source of conflict between slaveholders and abolitionists.
Politics In the Era of Good Feelings
Two Party System — The Two Party system refers to the political system in the United States in which there are two dominant political parties, the Democrats and the Republicans. The Two Party System has been a feature of American politics since the early 19th century.
John Quincy Adams and the Corrupt Bargain — John Quincy Adams was the sixth President of the United States, serving from 1825 to 1829. He was the son of John Adams, the second President of the United States. Adams was elected in a highly controversial election in which he lost the popular vote but won the presidency in the House of Representatives. His victory was seen by many as the result of a “Corrupt Bargain” with Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, and Adams faced significant opposition during his presidency as a result.
Election of 1828 — A presidential election in the United States in which Andrew Jackson, a Democrat, defeated John Quincy Adams, a National Republican, to become the seventh president of the United States. The campaign was marked by harsh personal attacks and political maneuvering, and it is often seen as a turning point in American politics, as it marked the end of the “Era of Good Feelings” and the beginning of the Two-Party system.
First Party System — The First Party System was a political arrangement that emerged in the United States in the late 18th century. It was characterized by the rivalry between the Federalist Party, led by Alexander Hamilton, and the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. This system shaped early American politics and established the foundation for party-based competition and policy debates.
Hartford Convention — The Hartford Convention was a meeting of Federalist Party leaders that was held in Hartford, Connecticut in 1814. The Hartford Convention was called in response to the perceived failures of the James Madison administration during the War of 1812 and the declining fortunes of the Federalist Party. The Hartford Convention was characterized by a series of debates and discussions about the future of the Federalist Party and the role of the federal government in the United States. The Hartford Convention was seen as a significant moment in the decline of the Federalist Party, and it is often cited as a key factor in the party’s eventual demise. The Federalist Party had been one of the dominant political parties in the United States in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, but it began to lose support in the aftermath of the War of 1812 and the Hartford Convention. The party was seen as elitist and out of touch with the needs of the American people, and it struggled to adapt to the changing political landscape of the early Republic. The Federalist Party declined in the years following the Hartford Convention and eventually disappeared from the national stage.
Second Party System — The Second Party System emerged in the United States in the 1820s and lasted until the 1850s. It was marked by the competition between the Democratic Party, led by Andrew Jackson, and the Whig Party, which opposed Jackson’s policies. This system saw the rise of national political conventions, mass participation in elections, and intense political campaigning. It also reflected the growing sectional tensions over issues such as slavery, ultimately leading to the Civil War.
Sectionalism — Sectionalism refers to the tendency for regions or sections of a country to have distinct economic, social, and political interests that may conflict with those of other regions. In the United States, sectionalism has often been driven by differences in the economic and social development of different regions of the country. For example, the North and South had very different economies in the 19th century, with the North being more industrialized and the South being more reliant on agriculture. These differences led to conflicts and tensions between the two regions and played a significant role in the development of the U.S. political system.
Virginia Dynasty — The Virginia Dynasty refers to a period in U.S. history in which four of the first five U.S. presidents were from Virginia. The Virginia Dynasty began with Thomas Jefferson, who was the third U.S. president and served from 1801 to 1809. It was followed by James Madison, who served as the fourth U.S. president from 1809 to 1817, and James Monroe, who served as the fifth U.S. president from 1817 to 1825. The Virginia Dynasty ended with John Quincy Adams, who was the sixth U.S. president and served from 1825 to 1829. The Virginia Dynasty is significant because it marked a period of stability and prosperity in the United States, and it is often seen as a high point in the country’s early history.
The Effects of Manifest Destiny and Westward Expansion on the Era of Good Feelings
Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817) — The Rush-Bagot Agreement was a treaty signed in 1817 between the United States and Great Britain that established the borders between the two countries in the Great Lakes region and limited the number of armed vessels that each country could maintain on the lakes. The agreement, which was signed by U.S. Secretary of State James Monroe and British diplomat Charles Bagot, was a significant step towards reducing tensions between the two countries and establishing peaceful relations.
Treaty of 1818 (1818) — The Treaty of 1818 was a treaty signed in 1818 between the United States and Great Britain that established the border between the two countries in the Pacific Northwest and established the terms for joint occupancy of the Oregon Country. The treaty, which was signed by U.S. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and British diplomat Richard Rush, was a significant step towards resolving disputes between the two countries and establishing peaceful relations.
Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) — The Adams-Onis Treaty, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, was a treaty signed in 1819 between the United States and Spain that established the boundary between the two countries in North America. The treaty, which was signed by U.S. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and Spanish diplomat Luis de Onis, was a significant step towards resolving disputes between the two countries and establishing peaceful relations.
Foreign Policy in the Era of Good Feelings
Monroe Doctrine (1823) — The Monroe Doctrine was a statement issued by U.S. President James Monroe in 1823 that declared the Western Hemisphere to be off-limits to European colonization and established the United States as the dominant power in the region. The doctrine, which was issued in response to increasing European intervention in the affairs of Latin American countries, was a significant statement of American foreign policy and played a significant role in shaping the political landscape of the Americas in the 19th and 20th centuries.