On August 21, 1862, Confederate President Jefferson Davis issued General Order No. 60 declaring Union Major General David Hunter an outlaw because Hunter had issued General Order No. 11 (Department of the South), on May 9, 1862, which emancipated slaves in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina.
WAR DEPT., ADJT. AND INSP. GEN.’S OFF.,
Richmond, August 21, 1862
GENERAL ORDERS NO. 60
I. Whereas Major-General Hunter, recently in command of the enemy’s forces on the coast of South Carolina, and Brigadier-General Phelps, a military commander of the enemy in the State of Louisiana, have organized and armed negro slaves for military service against their masters, citizens of this Confederacy; and whereas the Government of the United States has refused to answer an inquiry whether said conduct of its officers meets its sanction, and has thus left to this Government no other means of repressing said crimes and outrages than the adoption of such measures of retaliation as shall serve to prevent their repetition:
Ordered, That Major-General Hunter and Brigadier-General Phelps be no longer held and treated as public enemies of the Confederate States, but as outlaws; and that in the event of the capture of either of them, or that of any other commissioned officer employed in drilling, organizing, or instructing slaves, with a view to their armed service in this war, he shall not be regarded as a prisoner of war, but held in close confinement for execution as a felon at such time and place as the President shall order.
Adjutant and Inspector General.