Jeb Stuart — Facts and APUSH Notes

February 6, 1833–May 12, 1864

APUSH Definition — Jeb Stuart (1833–1864) was a renowned cavalry officer in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. He participated in nearly all of the major battles in the Eastern Theater prior to his death in 1864 but also failed to advance to Gettysburg in time to be a factor during the first day of that pivotal engagement.

JEB Stuart, Civil War General

Confederate General James Ewell Brown Stuart (aka Jeb Stuart), one of the greatest cavalry commanders in American history, was killed during the Battle of Chancellorsville. [Wikimedia Commons]

Who was Civil War officer Jeb Stuart?

James Ewell Brown “Jeb” Stuart resigned his commission as a captain in the United States Army in early May 1861 after his home state of Virginia seceded from the Union. On May 10, Virginia officials commissioned Stuart as a lieutenant colonel of the Virginia Infantry in the Confederate Army and assigned him to serve under Colonel Thomas J. Jackson in General Joseph Johnston’s Army of the Shenandoah. On July 4, 1861, Jackson placed Stuart in command of the 1st Virginia Cavalry, comprising all cavalry companies of Johnston’s army. Officials promoted Stuart to the rank of colonel two weeks later, on July 16, 1861. Three months later, he was promoted to brigadier general on September 24, 1861. On July 25, 1862, Stuart was promoted to major general and his command was upgraded to a cavalry division.

As a division commander, Stuart participated in nearly all of the major battles in the Eastern Theater, including the Battle of Brandy Station, the largest predominantly cavalry engagement of the Civil War.

Despite his many successes, Stuart’s reputation was seriously blemished by his failure to advance to Gettysburg in time to be a factor during the first day of that pivotal engagement. Still, General Robert E. Lee promoted Stuart to the position of corps commander on September 9, 1863.

On May 11, 1864, during the Battle of Yellow Tavern, Union Private John A. Huff mortally wounded Stuart with a shot from his .44 caliber revolver while retreating from Stuart’s cavalry. Stuart died the next day, May 12, 1864, at the age of thirty-one. Stuart was buried at Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia.

Jeb Stuart Facts for APUSH

Birth and Early Life

  • Full Name: His full name was James Ewell Brown Stuart (aka Jeb Stuart).
  • Parents: His parents were Archibald and Elizabeth Letcher (Pannill) Stuart.
  • Date of Birth: He was born on February 6, 1833.
  • Birthplace: He was born in Laurel Hill Farm, his family’s plantation in Patrick County, Virginia.

Family Tree

  • Spouse: His spouse was Flora Cooke (1855). They were married in 1855.

Death

  • Death: He died on May 12, 1864.
  • Place of Death: He died in Richmond, Virginia.
  • Burial: He is buried at Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.

Education

He attended Emory and Henry College and the United States Military Academy (1854).

Career

He worked as a military officer.

Career Summary

He was a Captain (USA) and Major General (CSA).

Jeb Stuart — Summary of His Life and Accomplishments for APUSH

J. E. B. Stuart was the eighth of eleven children of Archibald Stuart and Elizabeth Letcher Pannill Stuart.

Stuart’s great-grandfather, Major Alexander Stuart, was a regimental commander in the Revolutionary War, and his father fought in the War of 1812.

As a boy, he was home-schooled by his mother before being formally educated by tutors in Wytheville and Danville, Virginia.

Between 1848 and 1850, J. E. B. Stuart attended Emory and Henry College in Emory, Virginia.

In 1850, U.S. Congressman Thomas Hamlet Averett nominated Stuart for an appointment at the United States Military Academy.

He graduated thirteenth in his class of 46 at the United States Military Academy in 1854.

While attending West Point, J. E. B. Stuart became friends with the academy supervisor, and future Confederate army commander, Robert E. Lee.

After graduating from West Point, Stuart was brevetted as a second lieutenant and assigned to the Regiment of Mounted Rifles and stationed in Texas, where he campaigned against the Apache Indians.

He met and married Flora Cooke, the daughter of Lieutenant Colonel Philip St. George Cooke, on November 14, 1855.

J. E. B. Stuart was promoted to first lieutenant on December 20, 1855.

Stuart was wounded fighting against Cheyenne Indians in Kansas on July 29, 1857.

He served as Colonel Robert E. Lee’s aide-de-camp during the capture of John Brown following the abolitionist’s raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia in October 1859.

J. E. B. Stuart was promoted to captain on April 22, 1861.

Stuart resigned his commission in the U.S. Army in early May after his home state of Virginia seceded from the Union (April 17, 1861).

On May 10, 1861, he was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel of the Virginia Infantry in the Confederate Army and assigned to serve under Colonel Thomas J. Jackson in General Joseph Johnston’s Army of the Shenandoah.

On July 4, 1861, Jackson placed J. E. B. Stuart in command of the 1st Virginia Cavalry, comprising all cavalry companies of Johnston’s Army of the Shenandoah.

Stuart was promoted to colonel on July 16, 1861.

He played a prominent role in enabling Johnston’s Army of the Shenandoah to move from the Shenandoah Valley to the vicinity of Manassas in time to reinforce General P. G. T. Beauregard’s Army of the Potomac at the First Battle of Bull Run (July 21, 1861).

J. E. B. Stuart was promoted to brigadier general on September 24, 1861.

On June 12, 1862, Stuart began his famous “Ride around McClellan,” making him nearly as popular as Stonewall Jackson in the eyes of adoring Southerners.

On July 25, 1862, he was promoted to major general, and his command was upgraded to a cavalry division.

As a division commander, J. E. B. Stuart participated in the battles of Second Bull Run (August 28, 1862–August 30, 1862), Antietam (September 17, 1862), Fredericksburg (December 11–15, 1862), and Chancellorsville (April 30 to May 6, 1863).

During the Battle of Chancellorsville, Stuart assumed temporary command of Stonewall Jackson’s corps after Jackson was mortally wounded.

On June 9, 1863, he commanded the Confederate cavalry at the Battle of Brandy Station, the largest predominantly cavalry engagement of the Civil War.

Despite his many successes, J. E. B. Stuart’s reputation was seriously blemished by his failure to advance on Gettysburg in time to be a factor during the first day of that pivotal engagement (July 1-3, 1863).

Some historians have made Stuart a scapegoat for the Confederate loss at Gettysburg.

General Robert E. Lee promoted him to the position of corps commander on September 9, 1863.

J.E.B. Stuart was instrumental in delaying Ulysses S. Grant’s advance toward Richmond during the Battle of the Wilderness (May 5–7, 1864) and the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House (May 8 – 21, 1864).

On May 11, 1864, during the Battle of Yellow Tavern, a Union private, John A. Huff, mortally wounded Stuart with his .44 caliber revolver. Stuart died the next day, May 12, 1864.

Citation Information

The following information is provided for citations, including APA Style, Chicago Style, and MLA Style.

  • Article Title Jeb Stuart — Facts and APUSH Notes
  • Date February 6, 1833–May 12, 1864
  • Author
  • Website Name American History Central
  • Access Date July 20, 2024
  • Publisher R.Squared Communications, LLC
  • Original Published Date
  • Date of Last Update January 12, 2024

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