Jay Treaty Summary
The Jay Treaty — also known as the Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation and Jay’s Treaty — was a treaty signed between the United States and Great Britain in 1794. The main purpose of the treaty was to ease tensions between the two nations that lingered following the American Revolutionary War and that were created by the French Revolution. The treaty was negotiated by John Jay, who was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court at the time, and British Foreign Minister Lord William Grenville. The treaty addressed trade restrictions, border disputes, and the British forts in the Great Lakes Region. The treaty was controversial, and many Americans viewed it as beneficial to Great Britain. The debate over the treaty increased the divide between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans, however, it helped keep the United States avoid war with Great Britain — at least until 1812, and by that time the United States was a more established nation.
Jay Treaty Facts
- Negotiated between the United States and Great Britain.
- The official name of the Jay Treaty is the “Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, Between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America.”
- Also known as Jay’s Treaty and Treaty of London.
- The purpose of the negotiations was to remedy deteriorating conditions between the United States and Great Britain.
- Issues addressed were Britain’s tardy evacuation of forts on the American frontier, Britain’s impressment of American sailors, Britain’s seizure of naval and military supplies bound to enemy ports on neutral ships, and American navigation laws that were potentially damaging to Britain.
- The treaty proved unpopular with the American public because it resolved very few of the issues between the two nations.
- The issues of wartime debts and the US-Canada boundary were sent to arbitration–one of the first major uses of arbitration in diplomatic history.
- Alexander Hamilton’s behind-the-scenes interference may have undermined Jay’s ability to negotiate a stronger treaty.
- Opposition to the treaty was led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
- The treaty did have the effect of forestalling a military confrontation with Great Britain, which eventually occurred in 1812, by which time the U.S. was on firmer footing.
Jay Treaty Dates
- Signed: Jay’s Treaty was signed on November 19, 1794.
- Senate Ratification: It was ratified by the Senate on June 24, 1795, by a vote of 20-10.
- Presidential Signature: George Washington signed Jay’s Treaty on August 18, 1795.
- Effective Date: Jay’s Treaty went into effect on February 29, 1796.
Jay Treaty Frequently Asked Questions
The negotiation of Jay’s Treaty was prompted by several outstanding issues between the United States and Great Britain following the American Revolutionary War. These included the British retention of posts and forts on the Great Lakes — which violated the terms of the 1783 Treaty of Paris — and suppression of United States trade and commerce. The United States had passed laws preventing the collection of debts due to British subjects by American citizens. Furthermore, the Congress of the Confederation was too weak to force either the British government or the American states to obey the terms of the Treaty of Paris. These outstanding issues created tension and conflict between the United States and Great Britain, and Jay’s Treaty aimed to address these issues, reduce tensions, and avoid war.
The primary people involved in negotiating Jay’s Treaty were United States Chief Justice John Jay and British Foreign Minister Lord William Grenville. The terms of the treaty were primarily designed by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, who was strongly supported by John Jay. President George Washington also supported the treaty and sent Jay to London to negotiate with Lord Grenville. The negotiations were difficult, and Jay was forced to accept terms that were less favorable to the United States.
The Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 was issued by President George Washington to declare that the United States would take no part in a war between two or more other powers, specifically France and Britain. This was because there were many conflicts in Europe, including the French Revolution, and Washington wanted to stay out of all European conflicts. The Neutrality Proclamation was related to Jay’s Treaty because it established the principle of American neutrality in foreign wars and conflicts, and laid the foundation for negotiating additional agreements with foreign powers, such as Great Britain.
Some of the terms of Jay’s Treaty included the British surrendering control of posts and forts in the Great Lakes Region, and the United States was given a favorable trading status with Great Britain. However, the treaty also included some concessions that were not favorable to the United States, including a restriction on American trade with the British West Indies and a prohibition on exporting cotton.
Jay’s Treaty was controversial and was met with mixed reactions by politicians and the public in the United States. Some politicians, such as Alexander Hamilton and President George Washington, supported the treaty and saw it as a necessary step toward maintaining peace with Great Britain. However, Thomas Jefferson and other members of his Democratic-Republican Party opposed the treaty and saw it as a betrayal of American interests. The controversy surrounding the treaty led to heated debates in Congress, as well as protests and violent demonstrations in several American cities. In the end, the treaty was narrowly approved by the Senate.
Jay Treaty AP US History (APUSH) Study Guide
Use the following links and videos to study the Jay Treaty, John Jay, and the United States Consitution for the AP US History Exam.
Jay Treaty APUSH Definition
Jay’s Treaty (1795) was an important treaty between the United States and Great Britain that helped ease tension between the two nations. Widely criticized in America, the treaty was viewed as beneficial to Great Britain. However, it was approved by Congress and President Washington, which helped the United States avoid war.
American History Central Resources and Related Topics
- John Jay
- George Washington
- Alexander Hamilton
- Thomas Jefferson
- James Madison
- Federalists and Anti-Federalists
- United States Constitutional Amendments
- Treaty of Paris (1783)
- Proclamation of Neutrality (1793)
The Jay Treaty and the New Republic for APUSH Video
This video from Heimler’s History covers important developments during the New Republic Era, including the Jay Treaty.