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John Marshall (September 24, 1755–July 6, 1835) was an American revolutionary, diplomat, and jurist. As the 4th Chief Justice of the United States, Marshall presided over the Supreme Court of the United States for over three decades and was the principal founder of American constitutional law and the power of judicial review.
Notable Alumni of William and Mary College: John Marshall, 1780
John Marshall was Born near Germantown, Va., in what became Fauquier County, on Sept. 24, 1755. He was privately educated, which meant that he was schooled by his parents with whatever books they could find for him. Marshall's father, Thomas moved the family 30 miles from where his son was born to start a frontier lifestyle. Thomas Marshall was good friends with George Washington.
Who2 Biography: John Marshall, U.S. Supreme Court Judge
John Marshall was the fourth Chief Justice of the United States, appointed in 1801 by President John Adams. In the 34 years that Marshall presided over the Supreme Court, the federal powers of the judicial branch were defined and strengthened, most notably in the 1803 case of Marbury v. Madison, in which Marshall asserted the power of the court to overturn legislation deemed unconstitutional.
John Marshall Biography
(born Sept. 24, 1755, near Germantown [now Midland], Va.—died July 6, 1835, Philadelphia, Pa.) fourth chief justice of the United States and principal founder of the U.S. system of constitutional law. As perhaps the Supreme Court's most influential chief justice, Marshall was responsible for constructing and defending both the foundation of judicial power and the principles of American federalism. The first of his great cases in more than 30 years of service was Marbury v. Madison (1803), which established the Supreme Court's right to expound constitutional law and exercise judicial review by declaring laws unconstitutional.
John Marshall (1755 - 1835)
John Marshall was born in Prince William County (now Fauquier), Virginia. His father moved the family from there before John was ten to a valley in the Blue Ridge Mountains, about 30 miles away. Unlike most frontier dwellings, the home Thomas Marshall built was of frame construction rather than log and was one and a half story.
Who Served at Valley Forge: John Marshall
John Marshall was born on September 24, 1755 at Germantown (now Midland) in what became Fauquier County, Virginia four years later. He served first as lieutenant, and after July, 1778, as captain in the Continental Army in the Revolutionary War. John Marshall spent the winter of 1777-1778 with the troops in Valley Forge.
John Marshall was born in a log cabin on the Virginia frontier, one of 15 children. His father was a friend of George Washington and his mother was related to the Jeffersons, Lees, and Randolphs. Despite these connections, Marshall lived a very simple life and received little formal education. He saw action at Great Bridge and served in the Continental Army at Brandywine and Monmouth, and wintering with Washington at Valley Forge.
John Marshall Guide to Research Collections
A finding-aid for John Marshall research and manuscript collections
MARSHALL, John, (1755 - 1835)
MARSHALL, John,(uncle of Thomas Francis Marshall and cousin of Humphrey Marshall [1760-1841]), a Representative from Virginia; born in Germantown, Fauquier County, Va., September 24, 1755; received instruction from a tutor and attended the classical academy of the Messrs. Campbell in Westmoreland County, Va.; at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War joined a company of State militia that subsequently became part of the Eleventh Regiment of Virginia Troops; studied law at the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va.; was admitted to the bar on August 28, 1780; resigned his Army commission in 1781 and engaged in the practice of law in Fauquier County; delegate in the Virginia house of delegates in 1780; settled in Richmond and practiced law; member of the executive council 1782-1795; again a member of the house of burgesses 1782-1788; delegate to the State constitutional convention for the ratification of the Federal Constitution that met in Richmond June 2, 1788; one of the special commissioners to France in 1797 and 1798 to demand redress and reparation for hostile actions of that country; resumed the practice of law in Virginia; declined the appointment of Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States tendered by President Adams September 26, 1798; elected as a Federalist to the Sixth Congress and served from March 4, 1799, to June 7, 1800, when he resigned; was appointed Secretary of War by President Adams May 7, 1800, but the appointment was not considered, and on May 12, 1800, was appointed Secretary of State; entered upon his new duties June 6, 1800, and although appointed Chief Justice of the United States January 20, 1801, and notwithstanding he took the oath of office as Chief Justice February 4, 1801, continued to serve in the Cabinet until March 4, 1801; member of the Virginia convention of 1829; continued as
Born in Fauquier County, Virginia, on September 24, 1755, John Marshall became one of the most influential leaders of his time—the era of the American Revolution and the founding of the United States of America. As a young boy, Marshall was influenced and encouraged by his father's friend, George Washington. Marshall served in the Continental Army, first as a lieutenant and then as captain. Enduring the hardships of the winter at Valley Forge (1777-1778), Marshall's admiration of Washington grew as did his resolve to help shape what was to become the new nation.
John Marshall Foundation
Website of the John Marshall Foundation, which serves as the steward of the legacy of the great Chief Justice.
Marbury v. Madison
The case began on March 2, 1801, when an obscure Federalist, William Marbury, was designated as a justice of the peace in the District of Columbia. Marbury and several others were appointed to government posts created by Congress in the last days of John Adams's presidency, but these last-minute appointments were never fully finalized. The disgruntled appointees invoked an act of Congress and sued for their jobs in the Supreme Court.
Marbury v. Madison
When the U.S. Supreme Court issues opinions declaring laws unconstitutional, few today question the court's right to do so. Judicial review - testing legal statutes against the Constitution - is what nine unelected justices do for a living. Most of those who get the job do it for a really long time.
McCulloch v. Maryland
In 1816, Congress chartered The Second Bank of the United States. In 1818, the state of Maryland passed legislation to impose taxes on the bank. James W. McCulloch, the cashier of the Baltimore branch of the bank, refused to pay the tax.
The Judicial Mind of John Marshall: Nationalism
Thus begins the thought of Chief Justice John Marshall in the case of Marbury v. Madison. This case gave the justice his first opportunity to state what the government under the constitution of the United States should do for the American people. Marbury v. Madison was a case in which a citizen attempted to remedy a wrong he felt was done.