John M. Schofield portrait

John McAllister Schofield was a prominent Union general who played a leading role in the Atlanta Campaign and the Franklin-Nashville Campaign as commander of the Army of the Ohio. He later served as U.S. Secretary of War, Superintendent of the United States Military Academy, and commanding general of the United States Army. [Library of Congress]

John McAllister Schofield - Facts

September 29, 1831 - March 4, 1906

Key facts about John M. Schofield, a prominent Union general during the Civil War who later served as U.S. Secretary of War, Superintendent of the United States Military Academy, and commanding general of the United States Army.

Advertisements

Full Name:

  • John McAllister Schofield

Birth Date:

  • September 29, 1831

Birth Location:

  • Gerry, New York

Parents:

  • Reverend James and Caroline (McAllister) Schofield

Education:

  • United States Military Academy (1853)

Occupation:

  • Military officer
  • Politician

Career Summary:

  • Lieutenant General (USA)
  • U.S. Secretary of War
  • Commanding general United States Army

Spouse:

  • Harriet Bartlett (1857)
  • Georgia Kilbourne (1891)

Place of Death:

  • St. Augustine, Florida

Date of Death:

  • March 4, 1906

Place of Burial:

  • Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia

Significance:

  • John M. Schofield’s parents were Reverend James Schofield and Caroline McAllister.
  • John M. Schofield’s father was a Baptist minister.
  • John M. Schofield moved with his family to Freeport, Illinois in 1843.
  • John M. Schofield graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1853, seventh in his class.
  • John M. Schofield was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Second Artillery, United States Army, in 1853.
  • John M. Schofield was promoted to first lieutenant in August 1855
  • John M. Schofield married Harriet Bartlett in 1857.
  • John M. Schofield was an assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy at the United States Military Academy from 1855-1860.
  • While on leave from the army (1860-1861), John M. Schofield was a professor of physics at Washington University, in St. Louis, Missouri.
  • When the American Civil War began, John M. Schofield was promoted to major in the 1st Missouri Infantry and charged with mustering Missouri troops.
  • In 1861, John M. Schofield served as Assistant Adjutant-General to General Nathaniel Lyon, organizing the forces of the Union Army in Missouri.
  • John M. Schofield commanded the 1st Missouri Volunteer Infantry at the Battle of Wilson’s Creek (August 10, 1861).
  • John M. Schofield was commissioned as brigadier general of volunteers on November 21, 1861.
  • John M. Schofield was appointed as commander of the District of Missouri on June 1, 1862.
  • John M. Schofield commanded the Army of the Frontier, operating in Missouri and Kansas from October 12-November 20, 1862 and from December 29, 1862 – March 30, 1862 .
  • President Abraham Lincoln nominated John M. Schofield for promotion to major general on November 29, 1862, but the U.S. Senate declined to confirm his promotion.
  • President Abraham Lincoln nominated John M. Schofield for promotion to major general on March 12, 1863; the U.S. Senate confirmed his promotion on May 12, 1864 (to date from November 29, 1862).
  • John M. Schofield was promoted to a divisional command in the Army of the Cumberland on April 20, 1863.
  • John M. Schofield was appointed as commander of the Department of the Missouri on May 13, 1863.
  • While in command of the Department of the Missouri (1863-1864), John M. Schofield captured Fort Smith and Little Rock, in Arkansas.
  • While in command of the Department of the Missouri (1863-1864), John M. Schofield rendered material assistance to General Ulysses S. Grant during the Siege of Vicksburg (May 18 – July 4, 1863).
  • John M. Schofield was appointed as commander of the Department and Army of the Ohio, known at that time as the Twenty-third Army Corps, on February 9, 1864.
  • John M. Schofield commanded the Army of the Ohio throughout William T. Sherman’s Atlanta campaign (May 7 – September 2, 1864).
  • John M. Schofield was the commanding officer during the Union victory at the Battle of Franklin (November 30, 1864).
  • John M. Schofield was promoted to brigadier general in the regular army on November 30, 1864, for his leadership at the Battle of Franklin (November 30, 1864).
  • John M. Schofield took part in the Union victory at the Battle of Nashville (December 15-16, 1864).
  • John M. Schofield was promoted to the brevet rank of major general in the regular army on March 13, 1865.
  • John M. Schofield commanded the Department of North Carolina from April 26, 1865, until June 21, 1865.
  • John M. Schofield was mustered out of volunteer service on September 1, 1866.
  • From June 22, 1865, to August 16, 1866, John M. Schofield served as a confidential diplomatic emissary to France negotiating withdrawal of French troops from Mexico.
  • John M. Schofield served as Secretary of War under President Andrew Johnson from June 1, 1868 to March 13, 1869.
  • John M. Schofield was promoted to major general in the regular army on March 4, 1869.
  • Serving on a special mission to assess the military value of the Hawaiian Islands (1872 – 1873), John M. Schofield recommended the United States establish a military base at Pearl Harbor.
  • John M. Schofield was the Superintendent of the United States Military Academy from 1876 to 1881.
  • John M. Schofield commanded of the Military Division of the Pacific from 1882 to 1883.
  • John M. Schofield commanded of the Division of the Missouri from 1883 to 1886.
  • John M. Schofield commanded of the Division of the Atlantic from 1886 to 1888.
  • John M. Schofield’s first wife, Harriet, died on December 24, 1888.
  • John M. Schofield married his second wife, Georgia Kilbourne in 1891.
  • John M. Schofield received the Congressional Medal of Honor in 1892 for his “conspicuous gallantry” during the Battle of Wilson’s Creek (August 10, 1861).
  • John M. Schofield served as commanding general of the entire United States Army from August 14, 1888 to September 29, 1895.
  • John M. Schofield was promoted to lieutenant general, February 25, 1895.
  • John M. Schofield retired from active service on his 64th birthday, September 29, 1895.
  • John M. Schofield died of a cerebral hemorrhage on March 4, 1906, in St. Augustine, Florida.
Advertisements

Citation Information

The following information is provided for citations.

  • Article Title John McAllister Schofield - Facts
  • Coverage September 29, 1831 - March 4, 1906
  • Author
  • Keywords john m. schofield
  • Website Name American History Central
  • Access Date May 11, 2021
  • Publisher R.Squared Communications, LLC
  • Original Published Date
  • Date of Last Update April 29, 2021
GET THE BEST OF AMERICAN HISTORY CENTRAL DELIVERED TO YOUR INBOX!
SIGN UP
By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to receive news, offers, updates, and additional information from R.Squared Communications, LLC and American History Central. Easy unsubscribe links are included in every email.
CLOSE [X]