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General Orders, No. 7 (Department of the Cumberland, 1861), Text

Black and white photo of William T. Sherman.

GENERAL ORDERS, NO 7 Headquarters Department of the Cumberland, Louisville, Ky., October 8, 1861. Brigadier-General Robert Anderson having relinquished the command of this department in General Orders No. 6, of this date, the undersigned assumes command of this department. W. T. SHERMAN, Brigadier-General.

General Orders, No. 37 (Department of the Missouri, 1862), Text

Portrait of Ulysses S. Grant

General Orders No. 37 Hdqrs. Department of the Missouri Saint Louis, February 14, 1862. I.   Brig. Gen. U.S. Grant is assigned to the command of the District of West Tennessee and Brig. Gen. W.T. Sherman to the command of the District of Cairo. II.  Commanders of districts, divisions, brigades, and posts, in the State of … Read more

Supreme Court, Definition, Explanation

John Jay, Founding Father, Head Justice, Portrait, Stuart

Supreme Court Definition The United States Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in the federal government and plays an important role in the American legal system. Established by the United States Constitution, it consists of nine justices appointed for life by the President with Senate approval. The Court’s primary function is to interpret the … Read more

Civil War Timeline, History, 1863, Part 2

Civil War Timeline, History, July to December 1863, AHC Original

10 Moments That Shaped the Civil War 1863, July July 1 — Cabin Creek Indian Territory — Colonel James M. Williams of the First Kansas Colored Infantry led a Union supply train from Fort Scott, Kansas, to Fort Gibson, Indian Territory. Confederate Colonel Stand Watie planned to attack him at Cabin Creek but awaited reinforcements … Read more

Puebla, Siege, 1847

Siege of Puebla, 1847, American Troops Fight Mexicans

Siege of Puebla Facts Key Moments Siege of Puebla Significance The Siege of Puebla was important to the outcome of the Mexican-American War because the American victory allowed U.S. forces to retain control of Puebla and ended organized Mexican resistance in the region. Siege of Puebla Overview and History The Mexican army laid siege to … Read more

Civil War Timeline, History, 1863, Part 1

Civil War Timeline, History, January to June 1863, AHC Original

10 Moments That Shaped the Civil War 1863, January January 1 — Emancipation Proclamation States and Territories in Rebellion — The Emancipation Proclamation took effect. It declared enslaved people in territories considered to be in rebellion against the United States to be free, authorized the enlistment of black troops, and outraged pro-slavery Southerners. It was … Read more

Fort Lee, Battle, 1776

Charles Cornwallis, Portrait

Battle of Fort Lee Facts Battle of Fort Lee Timeline This timeline provides a chronology of events related to the Battle of Fort Lee. Battle of Fort Lee History and Overview On November 19, General William Howe sent 4,000 men to take Fort Lee. The Americans were warned and Washington ordered his men to abandon … Read more

Mamaroneck, Battle, 1776

Robert Rogers, Portrait, Illustration

Battle of Mamaroneck Facts Battle of Mamaroneck Timeline This timeline provides a chronology of events related to the Battle of Mamaroneck. Battle of Mamaroneck Overview and History During the withdrawal from Harlem Heights to White Plains, American forces abandoned the village of Mamaroneck, New York, which was about 12 miles southeast of White Plains.  Soon … Read more

Civil War Timeline, History, 1862, Part 2

Civil War Timeline, History, July to December 1862, AHC Original

10 Moments That Shaped the Civil War 1862, July July 1 — The Bureau of Internal Revenue, the forerunner of the Internal Revenue Service, was established. July 1 — President Abraham Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Acts, authorizing the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad July 1 — Malvern Hill Virginia — The final engagement … Read more

Civil War Timeline, History, 1862, Part 1

Civil War Timeline, History, January to June 1862, AHC Original

10 Moments That Shaped the Civil War 1862, January January 3 — Battle of Cockpit Point in Virginia. The outcome was inconclusive. January 5 — Hancock Maryland — On January 1, General Stonewall Jackson led his troops from Winchester to Bath to disrupt the B & O Railroad and C & O Canal. By January … Read more

Harlem Heights, Battle, 1776

Battle of Harlem Heights, 1776, Americans Attack British at the Fence

Battle of Harlem Heights Facts Events in the Battle of Harlem Heights These events provide an overview of what happened in the Battle of Harlem Heights and what led to the engagement. Battle of Harlem Heights Overview and History Following the Landing at Kip’s Bay on September 15, British forces pushed George Washington and the … Read more

Civil War Timeline, History, 1861, Part 2

Civil War Timeline, History, July to December 1861, AHC Original

The first year of the American Civil War continued. This timeline covers important moments that took place from July to December, including military and political events that affected the course of the war and the history of the United States. 10 Moments That Shaped the Civil War 1861, July July 2 — Hoke’s Run Western … Read more

Civil War Timeline, History, 1861, Part 1

Civil War Timeline, History, January to June 1861, AHC Original

10 Moments That Shaped the Civil War 1861, January — the Secession Crisis Continues The Secession Crisis intensified when Abraham Lincoln was elected President in November 1860. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union Afterward, President James Buchanan refused to surrender Federal forts and installations to states … Read more

Kip’s Bay, Landing, 1776

Landing at Kip's Bay, 1776, British flotilla, upscale

Landing at Kip’s Bay Facts Events in the Landing and Battle at Kip’s Bay These events provide an overview of what happened in the Landing and Battle at Kip’s Bay and what led to the engagement. Landing at Kip’s Bay History Following the Battle of Long Island (August 27, 1776), American forces under the command … Read more

Staten Island Peace Conference, 1776

Richard Howe, Admiral, British Royal Navy

Staten Island Peace Conference Important Facts Staten Island Peace Conference History During the Battle of Long Island (August 27, 1776), British forces captured General John Sullivan. While in captivity, he was invited to dinner with Admiral Richard Howe and his brother, General William Howe. During the dinner, Admiral Howe proposed discussing a diplomatic resolution to … Read more

New York Colony

King James II of England, Portrait

New York Colony Facts New York was officially founded in 1664 when English forces captured New Amsterdam and took control of the Dutch colony of New Netherland. The Dutch initially founded their colony in 1614, which included portions of present-day New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Connecticut, and Delaware. Following the English takeover, New York … Read more

Chapultepec, Battle, 1847

Battle of Chapultepec, 1847, Pillow's Attack

Battle of Chapultepec Facts Key Moments Battle of Chapultepec Significance The Battle of Chapultepec was important to the outcome of the Mexican-American War because the American victory allowed General Winfield Scott to immediately attack and capture Mexico City. The capture of Mexico City led to the end of the Mexican-American War. Battle of Chapultepec History … Read more

Molino del Rey, Battle, 1847

Battle of Molino del Rey, 1847, US Attack, Mexican American War

Battle of Molino Del Rey Facts Key Moments Battle of Molino del Rey Significance The Battle of Molino del Rey was important to the outcome of the Mexican-American War because American forces won the battle. Following the victory, American forces prepared to assault the Mexican defenses at Chapultepec Castle (September 12–13, 1847). Battle of Molino … Read more

Triangular Trade

Sugar Plantation, West Indies, Illustration

Triangular Trade Summary Triangular Trade in Colonial America involved shipping commodities between three ports in a triangular sequence. The starting port was in West Africa, where manufactured goods were traded for captive Africans. The second port was the West Indies or the 13 Original Colonies, where Africans were traded for natural resources like rum, sugar, … Read more

Fitzpatrick, Thomas

Thomas Fitzpatrick, Trapper, Fur Trade History

Who was Thomas Fitzpatrick, the Pathfinder? Thomas Fitzpatrick played an important role in the Rocky Mountain Fur Company and served the U.S. government during the era of Westward Expansion. Although much of what is known about Fitzpatrick is based on undocumented stories, he is known to have ventured into the mountains with William Henry Ashley … Read more