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Mountain Meadows Massacre – Summary

Mountain Meadows Massacre Monument

Prelude to the Massacre In 1847, members of the Church of Latter Day Saints, also known as Mormons, began settling in the area that now comprises most of Utah and Nevada. Under the leadership of Brigham Young, the Mormons had traveled west to escape religious persecution in Illinois and Missouri. In 1848, Mexico ceded much … Read more

Missouri Compromise, Facts

Henry Clay, Portrait, Brady

When the issue of Missouri statehood was first considered by the U. S. House of Representatives in 1819, New York Congressman James Tallmadge introduced an amendment that provided that the further introduction of slaves into Missouri should be forbidden and that all children of slave parents born in the state after its admission should be … Read more

Militia Act of 1862, Summary

Background After Southern forces fired on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, touching off the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln called for state militias to provide 75,000 volunteers to put down the insurrection. Northerners responded enthusiastically and states quickly filled their quotas. Some Unionists expected the Southern challenge to federal authority to be as … Read more

Militia Act of 1862 – Facts

Portrait of Massachusetts Senator Henry Wilson

President Abraham Lincoln signed the Militia Act of 1862 into law on July 17, 1862. The official title of the Militia Act of 1862 is “An Act to Amend the Act Calling Forth the Militia to Execute the Laws of the Union, Suppress Insurrections, and Repel Invasions, Approved February 28, 1795, and the Acts Amendatory … Read more

Mexican-American War – Facts

James K Polk, 11th President, Portrait

Also Known As The Mexican-American War is also known as the U.S.-Mexican War and the Mexican War. Date and Location The Mexican-American War lasted from April 25, 1846, until February 2, 1848. The Mexican-American War was fought on four fronts, Northern Mexico, New Mexico, California, and Central Mexico. Causes of the War A primary cause … Read more

Mexican-American War, Overview

James K Polk, 11th President, Portrait

Mexican-American War Buildup Texas Revolution The roots of the Mexican-American War trace back to the Texas Revolution (October 2, 1835–April 21, 1836). After gaining its independence from Spain in 1821, the Mexican government initially encouraged Americans to immigrate to the area that is now Texas. By 1835, the Americans who occupied Texas successfully overthrew Mexican rule … Read more

Kansas-Nebraska Act, Facts

Stephen Douglas, Portrait

The Kansas-Nebraska Act was enacted on May 30, 1854. The Kansas-Nebraska Act was proposed by Illinois Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas. The Kansas-Nebraska Act divided the portion of the Louisiana Purchase that was west of Missouri into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska. The Kansas-Nebraska Act employed the concept of popular sovereignty, allowing people in the … Read more

Kansas-Nebraska Act, Overview

Stephen Douglas, Portrait

Background The U.S. Constitution and Slavery When delegates to the Constitutional Convention assembled in Philadelphia in 1787, one of the more daunting tasks that they faced was resolving sectional differences between the North and South centered on the issue of slavery. After weeks of debate proved futile, the delegates negotiated a series of compromises that … Read more

South Carolina Exposition and Protest, Summary

John C Calhoun, Portrait

Prelude On May 19, 1828, U.S. President John Quincy Adams signed into law congressional legislation entitled “An Act in alteration of the several acts imposing duties on imports.” Commonly known as the Tariff of 1828, the measure raised revenue for the federal government by imposing duties (taxes) on manufactured products and some raw materials imported … Read more

South Carolina Exposition and Protest – Facts

Portrait of John C. Calhoun

U.S. President John Quincy Adams signed the Tariff of 1828 into law on May 19, 1828. The Tariff of 1828 is also known as the Tariff of Abominations. The Tariff of 1828 raised revenue for the federal government by imposing duties (taxes) on manufactured products and some raw materials imported into the United States. The … Read more

Tariff of 1833 – Facts

Henry Clay, Illustration, c 1835, LOC

With the nation teetering on the brink of civil war, Senators Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun hurriedly brokered a compromise measure known as the Tariff of 1833 to diffuse the situation. The formal name of the Tariff of 1833 is “An Act to modify the act of the fourteenth July, one thousand eight hundred … Read more

Tariff of 1833, Summary

Henry Clay, Illustration, c 1835, LOC

Prelude On May 19, 1828, U.S. President John Quincy Adams approved an act of Congress commonly known as the Tariff of 1828. Congress designed the legislation to raise revenue for the federal government by imposing duties (taxes) on manufactured products and some raw materials imported into the United States. Many Americans, especially in the South, … Read more

Tariff of 1832, Facts

Andrew Jackson, Portrait, Painting

On July 14, 1832, Congress passed An act to alter and amend the several act imposing duties on imports, commonly known as the Tariff of 1832. On July 14, 1832, President Andrew Jackson signed the Tariff of 1832 into law. The Tariff of 1832 did not go far enough to end Southern grievances over the … Read more

Tariff of 1832, Summary

Andrew Jackson, Portrait, Painting

Prelude On May 19, 1828, U.S. President John Quincy Adams approved An Act in alteration of the several acts imposing duties on imports. Commonly known as the Tariff of 1828, the legislation raised revenue for the federal government by imposing duties (taxes) on manufactured products and some raw materials imported into the United States. Many … Read more

Tariff of 1828 – Facts

John Quincy Adams portrait

U. S. President John Quincy Adams signed the Tariff of 1828 into law on May 19, 1828 The official name of the Tariff of 1828 was “An Act in alteration of the several acts imposing duties on imports.” The Tariff of 1828 is also known as the Tariff of Abominations. The Tariff of 1828 raised … Read more

Tariff of 1828, Summary

John Quincy Adams portrait

Prelude On May 19, 1828, U.S. President John Quincy Adams signed into law congressional legislation entitled “An Act in alteration of the several acts imposing duties on imports.” Commonly known as the Tariff of 1828, the measure raised revenue for the federal government by imposing duties (taxes) on manufactured products and some raw materials imported … Read more

Utah War – Facts

Brigham Young portrait

Also known as: Utah Expedition, Buchanan’s Blunder. Date: 1857-1858 Location: Utah Territory Significance: The Utah War was an armed confrontation between Mormon settlers in the Utah Territory and the armed forces of the United States government. The main adversaries in the Utah War were the Mormon Militia, called the Nauvoo Legion, and the United States … Read more

Utah War – Summary

Brigham Young portrait

Prelude In 1847, members of the Church of Latter-day Saints, also known as Mormons, began settling in the area that now comprises most of Utah and Nevada. Under the leadership of Brigham Young, the Mormons traveled west to escape religious persecution in Illinois and Missouri. In 1848, Mexico ceded much of what is now the … Read more

Washington Peace Conference, Facts

President John Tyler, Portrait

Also known as Washington Peace Convention Date February 4, 1861 – February 27, 1861 Location Willards’ Concert Hall, adjacent to the Willard Hotel in Washington, D.C. Notable participants Virginia Governor John Letcher, former U.S. President John Tyler Interesting Facts About the Washington Peace Conference of 1861 Twenty-one states (fourteen free and seven slave-holding) participated in … Read more

Washington Peace Conference, Summary

President John Tyler, Portrait

Washington Peace Conference of 1861 Overview and History On November 6, 1860, American voters elected Republican Abraham Lincoln as the sixteenth President of the United States. Alarmed by what they considered to be extremist views held by Lincoln and Radical Republicans, Southerners began escalating their threats to leave the Union. On November 10, only four … Read more