Army of the Frontier (USA) – Facts

Formation Date October 12, 1862 Dissolution Date October 19, 1863 Commanders John M. Schofield James G. Blunt Francis J. Herron Notable Engagements Battle of Clark’s Mill Battle of Cane Hill Battle of Prairie Grove Battle of Van Buren Battle of Chalk Bluff Significance On October 12, 1862, Major General Samuel R. Curtis issued General Orders, … Read more

Army of the Cumberland (USA) – Summary

William Rosecrans, Portrait, Civil War General

The Union Mobilizes On April 15, 1861, one day after the surrender of Fort Sumter propelled the nation into civil war, President Abraham Lincoln issued a proclamation calling for 75,000 state militiamen to suppress the Southern rebellion. Thousands of loyal men throughout the Midwest were quick to respond. The rapid buildup of local regiments required … Read more

Army of the Cumberland (USA) – Facts

William Rosecrans, Portrait, Civil War General

Formation Date October 24, 1862 Dissolution Date August 1, 1865 Commanders William S. Rosecrans, George H. Thomas David S. Stanley Dissolution June–August 1865 Significance: The Department and Army of the Cumberland trace their roots to the Department of Kentucky, which included as much of the state of Kentucky that lay within one hundred miles of … Read more

Quantrill, William Clarke – Facts

Full Name: William Clarke Quantrill Birth Date: July 31, 1837 Birth Location: Canal Dover (now Dover), Ohio Parents: Thomas Henry and Caroline Cornelia (Clarke) Education: Canal Dover Union School Occupation: Schoolteacher Gambler Career Summary: Leader of Quantrill’s Raiders May have been commissioned as a captain in the Confederate Army Spouse: Sarah Katherine King (1862) Place … Read more

Quantrill, William Clarke

Early Life William Clarke Quantrill was born in Canal Dover (now Dover), Ohio, on October 11, 1837. He was the oldest of Thomas Henry and Caroline Cornelia (Clarke) Quantrill’s twelve children (eight of whom survived infancy). Thomas Quantrill was a coppersmith when he and Caroline settled in Canal Dover the year before William’s birth. He … Read more

Quantrill’s Raiders – Facts

William Clarke Quantrill. Quantrill's Raiders

In December 1861, William C. Quantrill deserted from the Confederate Army and began assembling a band of irregulars that used guerilla tactics to ambush Yankee patrols and terrorize Northern sympathizers. By 1862, William C. Quantrill’s feared band of followers was known as Quantrill’s Raiders. On September 7, 1862, Quantrill’s Raiders stormed Olathe, Kansas. While holding … Read more

Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War – Facts

Zachariah Chandler portrait

The Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War was popularly known as the War Committee. The Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War was created on December 10, 1861. The original members of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War consisted of Republican Senators Benjamin F. Wade (Ohio) and Zachariah Chandler … Read more

Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War – Summary

Benjamin Franklin Wade, Senator

Background After Confederate artillery fired on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, touching off the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln issued a call for volunteers to put down the Southern uprising and restore the Union. Green recruits poured into Washington, D.C., forming the largest army ever assembled on the North American continent up to … Read more

Joint Committee on Reconstruction – Summary

Thaddeus Stevens, Radical Republican, LOC

Background On April 26, 1865, General Joseph E. Johnston surrendered the last major Confederate army in the field to William T. Sherman at Bennett Place, North Carolina, virtually ending major organized combat in the American Civil War. With Congress in recess, President Andrew Johnson turned his attention to reconstructing the Union. Like his predecessor, Abraham … Read more

Committee of Thirty-three – Facts

Portrait of Thomas Corwin

On December 4, 1860, by a vote of 145 to 38, the U.S. House of representatives formed a select committee to entertain ideas to avert disunion, known as the Committee of Thirty-three. The Committee of Thirty-three consisted of one representative from each state. The Committee of Thirty-three was chaired by Republican Thomas Corwin of Ohio. … Read more

Committee of Thirty-Three – Summary

Thomas Corwin, Congressman, Ohio, LOC

Background On November 6, 1860, American voters elected Republican Abraham Lincoln as the sixteenth President of the United States. Alarmed by what they considered to be extremist views held by Lincoln and Radical Republicans, Southerners began escalating their threats to leave the Union. On November 10, only four days after Lincoln’s victory, South Carolina was … Read more

Committee of Thirteen – Facts

Lazarus W. Powell portrait

On December 6, 1860, Kentucky Senator Lazarus Whitehead Powell proposed that the United States Senate from a select committee of thirteen members to reach a compromise agreement between the slaveholding and non-slaveholding states that might stem the secession movement and save the Union. The Committee of Thirteen met for the first time on December 18, … Read more

Committee of Thirteen – Summary

Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy

Background When the Republican Party assembled in Chicago from May 16 to May 18, 1860, to nominate a candidate for the U.S. presidency, they adopted a platform that would prohibit the extension of slavery in the United States, impose high tariffs to protect northern industry, and provide free land to homesteaders in the West. Southern … Read more

Stonewall Brigade – Facts

Thomas Stonewall Jackson, Illustration

Formation Date: June 1861 Dissolution Date: May 1864 Commanders: Brigadier General Thomas ‘Stonewall’ Jackson (June–October 1861), Brigadier-General Richard Garnett (November 1861–April 1862), Brigadier General Charles Winder (April–August 1862), Colonel William Baylor (August 1862), Colonel Andrew Grigsby (August–November 1862), Brigadier General Elisha Paxton (November 1862–May 1863), Brigadier General James Walker (May 1863–May 1864) Significance: The core … Read more

Stonewall Brigade – Summary

Thomas Stonewall Jackson, Illustration

Origins The history of the storied Stonewall Brigade begins with its legendary first commander, Thomas J. Jackson. In 1851, First Lieutenant Thomas J. Jackson, an 1846 West Point graduate and veteran of the Mexican-American War, resigned his commission in the U.S. Army and accepted a faculty position at the Virginia Military Institute. A decade later, … Read more

Iron Brigade – Facts

Rufus King, General, USA, Civil War, LOC

Formation Date: August 9, 1861 Dissolution Date: July 12, 1865 Commanders: Brigadier General Rufus King (September 28, 1861–May 7, 1862), Brigadier General John Gibbon (May 7–November 4, 1862), Brigadier General Solomon Meredith (November 25, 1862–July 1, 1863), Colonel William W. Robinson (July 1, 1863–March 25, 1864), Brigadier General Lysander Cutler (March 25–May 6, 1864), Colonel … Read more

Iron Brigade – Summary

Rufus King, General, USA, Civil War, LOC

American Civil War lore asserts that on more than one occasion Confederate soldiers exclaimed, “There Are those damned black-hatted fellows again.” The “black-hatted fellows” the Rebels referred to were members of the Iron Brigade of the West, more commonly known as the Iron Brigade. The unit’s soldiers were easily recognizable because they donned rather ornate … Read more

Irish Brigade – Facts

Thomas Francis Meagher, General, USA, Civil War, NPG

Formation Date: February 8, 1862 Dissolution Date: June 25, 1865 Commanders: Brigadier General Thomas F. Meagher, Colonel Patrick Kelly, Colonel Richard Byrnes, Colonel Robert Nugent, Colonel John Burke, Major A.J. Lawler, Brigadier General T.A. Smyth, and Colonel R.C. Duryea Significance: Soon after the Confederate victory at Bull Run, Thomas F. Meagher began lobbying the U.S. … Read more

Irish Brigade – Summary

Thomas Francis Meagher, General, USA, Civil War, NPG

Organization of the Irish Brigade When the U.S. Civil War erupted in April 1861, many state militia units offered their service to the federal government to quell the Southern insurrection. Among those was the 69th New York Infantry, an all-Irish regiment mustered into the state’s militia on October 12, 1851. Union officials quickly ordered the … Read more