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Continental Congress, First – Declaration and Resolves – Summary

Peyton Randolph, Illustration

Summary of the Declaration and Resolves The Declaration and Resolves is a document that was adopted by the First Continental Congress on October 14, 1774. It was issued in response to the passage of the Coercive Acts. Congress held its first meeting on September 5, 1776. In that meeting, the members decided to form a … Read more

Adams-Lee Junto – Summary

John Adams, Portrait, Stuart

During the Second Continental Congress, the push for independence was largely driven by Samual Adams, John Adams, and Richard Henry Lee. They led a faction that became known as the Adams-Lee Junto. Other members Adams-Lee Junto were: Wiliam Whipple James Lovell Arthur Lee Francis Lightfoot Lee Henry Laurens James Searle

Reynolds, Daniel Harris

Daniel H Reynolds, Civil War General

Early Life Daniel Harris Reynolds was born on December 14, 1832, in Centerburg, Ohio. He was the son of Amos and Sophia (Houck) Reynolds. Reynolds attended Ohio Wesleyan University, where he met Otho Strahl, another future Confederate general from Ohio. Both men left school before graduating and moved to Somerville, Tennessee to study law under … Read more

Ripley, Roswell Sabine

Roswell S Ripley, Civil War General

Early Life Roswell Sabine Ripley was born in Worthington, Ohio, on March 14, 1823. He was the son of Christopher and Julia Ripley. Sometime during the 1830s, Ripley’s family moved to New York. U.S. Military Academy Cadet In 1839, at the age of sixteen, Ripley received an appointment to the United States Military Academy. Among … Read more

Bailey, Joseph

Joseph Bailey Facts Early Life and Career Joseph Bailey was born on May 6, 1825, near the town of Pennsville in southeastern Ohio. As a youth, he moved with his family to Illinois. On December 24, 1846, Bailey married Mary Spaulding of New York. In 1850, the Bailey’s settled in Kilbourn City (now Wisconsin Dells) in … Read more

Giddings, Joshua Reed

Joshua Reed Giddings, Congressman

Early Life Joshua Reed Giddings was born on October 6, 1795, in Tioga Point (later Athens), Pennsylvania. He was the son of Joshua and Elizabeth (Pease) Giddings. As an infant, he moved with his parents to Canandaigua, New York, in 1795. In 1806, the family moved to Ashtabula County, Ohio. There, Giddings worked on his … Read more

Wade, Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin Wade, Senator

Early Life Benjamin Franklin Wade was born in Feeding Hills, Massachusetts, near Springfield, on October 27, 1800. He was the youngest of ten children of James and Mary (Upham) Wade. In 1821, Wade’s family moved to Andover, Ohio, in the Western Reserve. Wade worked on his father’s farm for two years, before taking a job … Read more

Quantrill’s Raiders – Summary

William Clarke Quantrill. Quantrill's Raiders

Background In some respects, the Civil War began in Kansas and Missouri long before the first salvo fired at Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861. Nearly seven years earlier, on May 30, 1854, President Franklin Pierce signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which established procedures to expedite the formation of new territories in the Louisiana Purchase west … Read more

Dennison, William Jr.

Early Life William Dennison, Jr., was born at Cincinnati, Ohio on November 23, 1815. He was the son of William and Mary (Carter) Dennison. As a youth, Dennison worked in the family woolen business. In 1835, he graduated from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, at the age of nineteen years. Dennison then studied law in … Read more

Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, Summary

Millard Fillmore, Portrait, Brady

Prelude The U.S. Constitution and Slavery When delegates to the Constitutional Convention assembled in Philadelphia in 1787, one of the more daunting tasks that they faced was resolving sectional differences between the North and South centered on slavery. After weeks of debate proved futile, the delegates negotiated a series of compromises that enabled them to … Read more

Tod, David

David Tod, Governor of Ohio

Early Life David Tod was born at Youngstown, Ohio on February 21, 1805. He was the son of George and Sarah (Isaacs) Tod. Tod’s father was a successful lawyer and a member of the Ohio Supreme Court. Tod was raised on the family estate, Brier Hill, and attended local schools before enrolling at Burton Academy … Read more

Sherman’s March to the Sea, 1864

William Tecumseh Sherman, Seated, Portrait, Brady

Prelude to the Campaign Following the Federal breakout from Chattanooga in November 1863, President Abraham Lincoln promoted Major General Ulysses S. Grant to the special rank of Lieutenant General and placed in command of all Union armies. Grant moved his headquarters to Washington, DC, leaving his trusted subordinate, Major General William T. Sherman, in command … Read more

Brown’s Mill, Battle of – Summary

Portrait of Joseph Wheeler

Prelude Following the federal breakout from Chattanooga in November 1863, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln promoted Major General Ulysses S. Grant to the special rank of lieutenant general and placed him in command of all Union armies. Grant temporarily moved his headquarters to Washington, DC, leaving his trusted subordinate, Major General William T. Sherman, in command … Read more

Selma, Battle of – Summary

Prelude Grant’s Umbrella Strategy On March 12, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant as General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States. Upon his arrival in Washington, DC, Grant drafted a plan to have the various Union armies in the field to act in concert and strike the Confederacy from several directions: Grant … Read more

Wilson’s Raid – Summary

Prelude On March 12, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant as General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States. Upon his arrival in Washington, Grant drafted a plan to have the various Union armies in the field to act in concert and strike the Confederacy from several directions: Grant would travel with Major … Read more

Missouri Compromise, Overview

Henry Clay, Illustration, c 1835, LOC

What Was the Missouri Compromise? The Missouri Compromise of 1820 was an agreement that temporarily resolved growing sectional tensions between the North and the South, which lingered since the Constitutional Convention of 1787. Following prolonged debates at the Constitutional Convention, a series of compromises emerged, enabling the formation of a “more perfect Union.” While these … Read more

Missouri Compromise, Text

Henry Clay, Portrait, Brady

An Act to authorize the people of the Missouri territory to form a constitution and state government, and for the admission of such state into the Union on an equal footing with the original states, and to prohibit slavery in certain territories. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United … Read more

Compromise of 1850 – Summary

Henry Clay, Portrait, Brady

Prelude When delegates to the Constitutional Convention assembled in Philadelphia in 1787, one of the more daunting tasks that they faced was resolving sectional differences between the North and South centered on slavery. After weeks of debate proved futile, the delegates negotiated a series of compromises that enabled them to proceed with their primary assignment … Read more

Clark, Charles

Charles Clark, Governor of Mississippi

Early Life Charles Clark was born in Lebanon, Ohio, near Cincinnati, on May 24, 1811. After graduating from Augusta College, in Kentucky in 1831, Clark moved to Mississippi, where he taught school and studied law. After being admitted to the bar, Clark practiced law and became active in politics as a member of the Whig … Read more

Gag Rule

Henry Wise, Congressman, Gag Rule

Gag Rule Quick Facts The Right to Petition the Government The First Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees the right “to petition the government for a redress of grievances.” During the nation’s formative years, citizens exercised that right so regularly that early rules of the House of Representatives designated the first thirty days of … Read more