entry

Lookout Mountain, Battle of – Summary

Joseph Hooker, Civil War General

Prelude to the Battle Rosecrans Moves Toward Chattanooga On December 26, 1862, Major General William S. Rosecrans led the Union Army of the Cumberland out of Nashville, Tennessee with orders to capture Chattanooga, Tennessee. Chattanooga was an important railroad junction that connected the upper Confederacy with the Deep South. Between Rosecrans and Chattanooga was Lieutenant … Read more

Waynesboro, Battle of – Summary

George Armstrong Custer, Portrait, Civil War General

Prelude Lee Sends Early into the Shenandoah Valley In June 1864, Robert E. Lee deployed Lieutenant General Jubal Early’s newly designated Army of the Valley to the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia. Lee ordered Early to halt an advancing Union army commanded by Major General David Hunter. On June 17 and 18, Early’s army defeated Hunter’s … Read more

Bull Run, First Battle of – Summary

Irvin McDowell, Portrait

Summary of the First Battle of Bull Run The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as the First Battle of Manassas, took place on July 21, 1861, near Manassas, Virginia, along the banks of a mall river called Bull Run. Union forces marched south from Washington, D.C., and attacked Confederate forces. The Confederates were … Read more

Culpeper Court House, Battle of – Summary

JEB Stuart, Civil War General

Prelude Following the Union victory at the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863), Confederate General Robert E. Lee abandoned his invasion of the North and withdraw his Army of Northern Virginia to Virginia. Despite prodding from President Abraham Lincoln, the victorious General George Meade did not aggressively pursue Lee with the Army of the Potomac. … Read more

Gettysburg Address, Text

Abraham Lincoln, Portrait, Gardner

Text of the Gettysburg Address Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so … Read more

Antietam, Battle of – Summary

Robert E Lee, 1864, Portrait

Battle of Antietam Summary The Battle of Antietam occurred in 1862 when Confederate General Robert E. Lee led his army into Maryland. By invading the North, he hoped to obtain provisions and possibly gain European support. Union General George McClellan was tasked with stopping Lee’s advance, and after receiving a copy of Lee’s Special Order, … Read more

Peninsula Campaign – Summary

George McClellan, Portrait, Brady

Prelude to the Peninsula Campaign Within twenty-four hours of the Union’s defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861, the Lincoln administration called upon George B. McClellan to lead the Union war effort. McClellan spent the first few months of his command fortifying Washington, DC, and reorganizing federal forces. The Northern … Read more

Seven Pines, Battle of – Facts

Joseph Johnston, Civil War General

Also Known As Battle of Fair Oaks Date and Location May 31 – June 1, 1862 Henrico County, Virginia Campaign Peninsula Campaign Principal Union Commanders Major General George B. McClellan Principal Confederate Commanders General Joseph E. Johnston Major General G.W. Smith Union Forces Engaged Army of the Potomac Confederate Forces Engaged Army of Northern Virginia … Read more

Seven Days Battles – Summary

George McClellan, Portrait, Brady

Prelude to the Seven Days Battles Peninsula Campaign On March 17, 1862, Union General George B. McClellan launched his Peninsula Campaign. McClellan planned to transport the Army of the Potomac by ship to Fort Monroe, on the peninsula between the York and James Rivers in southeastern Virginia. With the bulk of the Confederate forces positioned … Read more

Chancellorsville, Battle of – Summary

Thomas Stonewall Jackson, Illustration

Prelude to the Battle of Chancellorsville Following yet another decisive Union defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg (December 11–15, 1862), and General Ambrose Burnside’s failed January “Mud March”, President Abraham Lincoln was again searching for someone to lead his Federal forces to victory in the East. On January 25, 1863, Lincoln drafted General Orders, No. 20 … Read more

Overland Campaign – Summary

Ulysses S Grant, at Cold Harbor, Portrait

Events Leading Up to the Overland Campaign On March 10, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant as General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States. Grant brought with him, from his successes in the western theater of the war, a reputation for the doggedness Lincoln was seeking. Unlike previous Union generals, Grant was … Read more

Wilderness, Battle of the – Summary

James Longstreet, Portrait, Confederate General

Prelude to the Battle Grant in Charge of Federal Armies On March 10, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant as General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States. Grant brought with him, from his successes in the Western Theater of the war, a reputation for the doggedness Lincoln was seeking. Unlike other Union … Read more

Cold Harbor, Battle of – Facts

Ulysses S Grant, at Cold Harbor, Portrait

Definition The Battle of Cold Harbor was fought between the United States of America and the Confederate States of America from May 31, 1864, to June 12, 1864, during the American Civil War. Quick Facts Also Known As: The Battle of Cold Harbor is also called the “Second Battle of Cold Harbor.” Date Started: The … Read more

Fort Donelson, Battle of – Summary

Battle of Fort Donelson, Painting

Prelude to the Battle of Fort Donelson At the onset of the American Civil War, the State of Tennessee comprised most of the northern border of the Confederate States of America in the West. Defending that border was difficult for the Confederacy because Union troops might use any of three major rivers (the Mississippi, which … Read more

Shiloh, Battle of – Summary

Ulysses S Grant, at Cold Harbor, Portrait

Prelude At the onset of the American Civil War, the State of Tennessee comprised most of the northern border of the Confederate States of America in the West. Defending that border was difficult for the Confederacy because three major rivers (the Mississippi, which flows south to the Gulf of Mexico, and the Tennessee and Cumberland … Read more

Vicksburg Campaign – Summary

Ulysses S Grant, at Cold Harbor, Portrait

Prelude to the Vicksburg Campaign At the onset of the American Civil War, the State of Tennessee comprised most of the northern border of the Confederate States of America in the West. Defending that border was difficult for the Confederacy because three major rivers (the Mississippi, which flows south to the Gulf of Mexico, and … Read more

Yorktown, Siege of – Summary

George McClellan, Portrait, Brady

Prelude to the Battle Within twenty-four hours of the Union’s defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run (July 21, 1861), the Lincoln administration called upon George B. McClellan to lead the Union war effort in the East. McClellan spent the first few months of his new command fortifying Washington, DC, and reorganizing federal forces. … Read more

Stones River, Battle of – Summary

William Rosecrans, Portrait, Civil War General

Prelude Following the Battle of Perryville (October 8, 1862), Confederate General Braxton Bragg called off his Heartland Campaign and withdrew his forces from Kentucky to Tennessee. There, Bragg reorganized his command by merging forces with General Kirby Smith‘s Army of Kentucky to form the Army of Tennessee. In November, Bragg established a defensive position along … Read more

Chickamauga, Battle of – Summary

William Rosecrans, Portrait, Civil War General

Battle of Chickamauga Prelude Following the Battle of Perryville (October 8, 1862), General Braxton Bragg called off his Confederate Heartland Offensive and withdrew his soldiers from Kentucky to Tennessee. There, Bragg merged forces with General Kirby Smith’s Army of Kentucky and reorganized his command to form the Army of Tennessee. In November, Bragg established a … Read more

Armistead, Lewis Addison – Biography

General Lewis Armistead, Civil War

Early Life Lewis Addison Armistead was born on February 18, 1817, in New Bern, North Carolina. His parents were Walker Keith Armistead and Elizabeth Stanly Armistead. Armistead’s father and his father’s five brothers served in the War of 1812. His uncle, George, commanded Fort McHenry during the British attack that inspired The Star-Spangled Banner during … Read more