Buckland Mills, Battle, 1863, Overview

Portrait of J. E. B. Stuart

Prelude to the Battle Lee Escapes After Gettysburg Following the Union victory at the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863), Major General George G. Meade and the Army of the Potomac cautiously pursued General Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia as it retreated into Virginia. Despite encounters at the Battle of Williamsport … Read more

Averasboro, Battle of – Summary

Portrait of William J. Hardee

Prelude to the Battle On February 1, 1865, Union Major General William T. Sherman led 60,000 battle-hardened, veteran soldiers out of Savannah, Georgia, into South Carolina, starting his Carolinas Campaign. The previous December, Union General-in-Chief Ulysses S. Grant had given Sherman the following orders: Without waiting further directions, then, you may make your preparations to … Read more

Arkansas Post, Battle, Facts

John McClernand, Union General, Portrait

Quick Facts Interesting Facts Principal Confederate Commander Principal Union Commanders Union Forces Engaged Confederate Forces Engaged Number of Union Soldiers Engaged Number of Confederate Soldiers Engaged Union Casualties Confederate Casualties Result Outcome The Battle of Arkansas Post contributed little, if anything, toward the success of the Vicksburg Campaign, but it did eliminate a minor impediment … Read more

Yorktown, Siege, 1862, Facts

George McClellan, Portrait

Also Known As Battle of Yorktown Date and Location April 5–May 4, 1862 York County and Newport News, Virginia Campaign Peninsula Campaign Principal Union Commanders Major General George B. McClellan Principal Confederate Commanders Major General John B. Magruder General Joseph E. Johnston Union Forces Engaged Army of the Potomac Confederate Forces Engaged Army of the … Read more

Vicksburg, Siege, 1863

Portrait of John C. Pemberton

Prelude to the Siege By late 1861, President Abraham Lincoln was pressuring Union commanders in the west to invade the South. On January 30, 1862, the Western Theater commander, General Henry Halleck, reluctantly approved Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant’s request to attack Fort Henry on the Tennessee River. Eager to move, Grant left Cairo, Illinois … Read more

Port Hudson, Siege of – Facts

General Nathaniel P. Banks, Civil War, USA, NA

Also known as: Battle of Port Hudson Date: May 21 – July 9, 1863 Location: East Baton Rouge Parish and East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana” Campaign: Port Hudson Principal Union commander(s): Major General Nathaniel P. Banks Principal Confederate commander(s): Major General Franklin Gardner Union forces engaged: 19th Army Corps,Army of the Gulf Confederate forces engaged: Department … Read more

Port Hudson, Siege of – Summary

Portrait of Nathaniel P. Banks

Prelude Northern Mississippi River From the onset of the American Civil War, seizing control of the Mississippi River was a primary goal of Union forces operating in the Western Theater. In February 1862, troops commanded by Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant opened the door by capturing Fort Henry, on the Tennessee River, and Fort Donelson, … Read more

Knoxville, Siege, 1863, Facts

Portrait of James Longstreet.

Date November 4–December 14, 1863 Location Knox County, Tennessee Campaign Knoxville Campaign Principal Union Commanders Major General Ambrose E. Burnside Principal Confederate Commanders Lieutenant General James Longstreet Union Forces Engaged Army of the Ohio, 13th Army Corps, Shackelford’s Cavalry Corps Confederate Forces Engaged Longstreet’s Command, Martin’s Cavalry Corps Number of Union Soldiers Engaged Roughly 5,000 … Read more

Knoxville, Siege, 1863, Overview

Portrait of James Longstreet.

Prelude to the Battle Tennessee Secedes from the Union On June 8, 1861, Tennessee became the last Southern state to secede from the Union. The decision, however, was far from unanimous. In the eastern part of the state, the referendum on secession lost by some 20,000 votes at the polls. Starting an independent secessionist movement, … Read more

Corinth, Siege of – Facts

Portrait of Henry Halleck

Also known as: Battle of Corinth I, First Battle of Corinth Date: April 29 – May 30, 1862 Location: Hardin County and McNairy County, Tennessee; Alcorn County and Tishomingo County, Mississippi Campaign: Federal Penetration up the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers Principal Union commander(s): Major General Henry Halleck (overall), Major General Ulysses S. Grant (nominally second … Read more

Army of the Shenandoah, First (USA) – Facts

General Nathaniel P. Banks, Civil War, USA, NA

Formation Date 1861 Dissolution Date 1862 Commanders Robert Patterson Nathaniel Banks Significance The first Army of the Shenandoah is an unofficial designation given to troops who served in the Shenandoah Valley in 1861 and 1862. The first Army of the Shenandoah traces its roots to General Orders No. 12 issued by the U.S. War Department … Read more

Army of the Shenandoah, Second (USA) – Facts

General Philip Sheridan, USA, Civil War, LOC

Formation Date August 6, 1864 Dissolution Date June 27, 1865 Commanders Philip H. Sheridan A. T. A. Torbert Winfield Scott Hancock Notable engagements Battle of Opequon Battle of Fisher’s Hill Battle of Tom’s Brook Battle of Cedar Creek Significance In early August, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant advised President Abraham Lincoln and War Department officials … Read more

Army of Tennessee (CSA) – Facts

Joseph Johnston, Civil War General

Formation Date November 20, 1862 Dissolution Date April 26, 1865 Commanders Braxton Bragg William J. Hardee Joseph E. Johnston John Bell Hood Richard R. Taylor Significance The Army of Tennessee was the Confederacy’s main fighting force of the Western Theater of the American Civil War. The roots of the Army of Tennessee trace back to … Read more

Army of Tennessee (CSA) – Summary

PGT Beauregard, Civil War General

Origins Although not officially designated the Army of Tennessee until 1862, the roots of the Confederacy’s primary fighting force in the West trace back to 1861. Prior to Tennessee’s secession from the Union on June 8, 1861, the state legislature authorized Governor Isham Harris to enter a military league with the Confederate States of America. … Read more

Army of Georgia (USA), Civil War

Henry Warner Slocum, General, USA, Civil War, LOC

What was the Army of Georgia (USA)? The Army of Georgia, consisting of the 14th and 20th Army Corps, served as the left wing of Major General William T. Sherman’s army group throughout the Savannah Campaign, also known as Sherman’s March to the Sea, and the Carolinas Campaign. Army of Georgia (USA) Dates Army of … Read more

Wade-Davis Bill – Facts

Benjamin Wade portrait

On December 8, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln announced his Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction outlining lenient Reconstruction terms for the South. On February 17, 1863 Republican Senator Ira Harris of New York introduced a bill (S. 538) To guarantee in certain States a republican form of government. The bill enumerated various conditions for the reestablishment … Read more

Wade-Davis Bill, Summary

Benjamin Wade portrait

Background of the Wade-Davis Bill Union fortunes on the battlefield were not faring well at the beginning of 1863. Armies in the West had won hard-fought victories at Shiloh and Corinth in 1862, but Confederate forces had them stalled near Vicksburg. In the East, Major General George McClellan’s failure to pursue General Robert E. Lee … Read more

Barton, Clarissa “Clara” Harlowe – Biography

Clara Barton, Angel of the Battlefield, Portrait

Clara Barton Biography Clara Barton was a nurse and humanitarian who is best known for her service during the Civil War and as the founder of the American Red Cross. She was born in North Oxford, Massachusetts in 1821 and grew up in a time when opportunities were limited for women to work outside of … Read more

Carolinas Campaign – Facts

William Tecumseh Sherman, Seated, Portrait, Brady

Date and Location February 1, 1865–April 26, 1865 North and South Carolina Timeline of the Carolinas Campaign These are the main battles and events of the Carolinas Campaign in order. February 3, 1865 — Battle of Rivers’ Bridge February 11, 1865 — Battle of Aiken March 7–10, 1865 — Battle of Wyse Fork March 10, … Read more

Johnston, Albert Sidney – Facts

Albert Sidney Johnston

Full Name: Birth Date: Birth Location: Parents: Education: Occupation: Career Summary: Spouses: Place of Death: Date of Death: Place of Burial: Significance: