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Wade-Davis Bill – Facts

Benjamin Wade portrait

On December 8, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln announced his Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction outlining lenient Reconstruction terms for the South. On February 17, 1863 Republican Senator Ira Harris of New York introduced a bill (S. 538) To guarantee in certain States a republican form of government. The bill enumerated various conditions for the reestablishment … Read more

Wade-Davis Bill, Summary

Benjamin Wade portrait

Background of the Wade-Davis Bill Union fortunes on the battlefield were not faring well at the beginning of 1863. Armies in the West had won hard-fought victories at Shiloh and Corinth in 1862, but Confederate forces had them stalled near Vicksburg. In the East, Major General George McClellan’s failure to pursue General Robert E. Lee … Read more

Barton, Clarissa “Clara” Harlowe – Biography

Clara Barton, Angel of the Battlefield, Portrait

Clara Barton Biography Clara Barton was a nurse and humanitarian who is best known for her service during the Civil War and as the founder of the American Red Cross. She was born in North Oxford, Massachusetts in 1821 and grew up in a time when opportunities were limited for women to work outside of … Read more

Carolinas Campaign – Facts

William Tecumseh Sherman, Seated, Portrait, Brady

Date and Location February 1, 1865–April 26, 1865 North and South Carolina Timeline of the Carolinas Campaign These are the main battles and events of the Carolinas Campaign in order. February 3, 1865 — Battle of Rivers’ Bridge February 11, 1865 — Battle of Aiken March 7–10, 1865 — Battle of Wyse Fork March 10, … Read more

Johnston, Albert Sidney – Facts

Albert Sidney Johnston

Full Name: Birth Date: Birth Location: Parents: Education: Occupation: Career Summary: Spouses: Place of Death: Date of Death: Place of Burial: Significance:

Johnston, Albert Sidney

Albert Sidney Johnston, General, CSA, Civil War, LOC

Early Life Albert Sidney Johnston was born in Washington, Kentucky on February 2, 1803. He was the youngest son of Dr. John Johnston and Abigail Harris Johnston. Johnston received private schooling as a youth before entering Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky. While enrolled there, he may have become acquainted with future United States Secretary of … Read more

Calhoun, John Caldwell

John C. Calhoun, Vice President, Portrait, Healy

Early Life of John C. Calhoun John Caldwell Calhoun was born on March 18, 1782, in an area that would later become the Abbeville District in the Uplands of South Carolina. Calhoun was the fourth child of Patrick and Martha Caldwell Calhoun. Both parents emigrated from Ireland to Virginia in the mid-eighteenth century. After moving … Read more

Buchanan, James – Facts

Portrait of James Buchanan

Full Name: Birth Date: Birth Location: Parents: Education: Occupation: Career Summary: Spouse: Place of Death: Date of Death: Place of Burial: Significance:

Kilpatrick, Hugh Judson – Facts

Hugh Judson Kilpatrick, Civil War General

Full Name: Hugh Judson Kilpatrick Birth Date: January 14, 1836 Birth Location: Wantage Township, near Deckertown, New Jersey Parents: Colonel Simon Kilpatrick and Julia (Wickham) Kilpatrick Education: United States Military Academy (1861) Occupation: Military officer, ambassador Career Summary: Captain (USA), Major General (USVA), Brevet Major General (USA), U. S. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to … Read more

Reynolds, John Fulton – Facts

John F Reynolds, Portrait

Full Name: Birth Date: Birth Location: Parents: Education: Occupation: Career Summary: Spouse: Nickname: Place of Death: Date of Death: Place of Burial: Significance:

Williamsport, Battle, 1863, Overview

Robert E Lee, 1864, Portrait

Battle of Williamsport Summary The Battle of Williamsport — also known as the Battle of Falling Waters — was fought from July 6–16, 1863, in Washington County, Maryland, during the Confederate Retreat from Gettysburg. As Robert E. Lee and the Confederate Army moved into Maryland, toward Hagerstown and Williamsport, they were slowed by heavy rains, which … Read more

Boonsboro, Battle, 1863, Overview

JEB Stuart, Civil War General

Battle of Boonsboro Summary The Battle of Boonboro was fought on July 8, 1863, in and around the town of Boonsboro, Maryland, during the Confederate Retreat from Gettysburg. General Robert E. Lee sent General J.E.B. Stuart and his cavalry on a mission to find the Union Cavalry, which was harassing the Confederates as they retreated. … Read more

Manassas Gap, Battle, 1863, Overview

Robert E Lee, 1864, Portrait

Battle of Manassas Summary The Battle of Manassas Gap — also known as the Battle of Wapping Heights — was fought on July 23, 1863, in Warren County, Virginia, during the Confederate Retreat from Gettysburg.  As Robert E. Lee and the Confederate Army moved out of Maryland and into Virginia, they passed into the Shenandoah … Read more

Bennett Place, Surrender at – Summary

Photography of the Unity Monument at Bennett Place Historical Site.

Prelude Union in Control At the dawn of 1865, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant’s strategy of having all Union forces in the field act in concert was coming to fruition. In the East, despite suffering unprecedented casualties under horrific battlefield conditions during the Overland Campaign and the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign of 1864, Major General George Meade … Read more

Wilson’s Creek, Battle of – Summary

General Nathaniel Lyon, USA, Civil War, NPS

Battle of Wilson’s Creek History Tenuous Neutrality in Missouri When the American Civil War began, sympathies in the border state of Missouri were greatly divided. Although many Missourians favored remaining in the Union, Governor Claiborne Jackson was a strong proponent of secession. Despite his secessionist leanings, Jackson declared his support for the Union and affirmed … Read more

Big Bethel, Battle of – Summary

Benjamin F. Butler portrait

Prelude to the Battle of Big Bethel Federals Establishes Outposts On April 17, 1861, a statewide convention of Virginia delegates passed an ordinance of secession declaring the state’s intention to leave the Union, subject to ratification by the general electorate in a poll scheduled for May 23, 1861. As Virginians prepared to cast their ballots, … Read more

Boonville, Battle of – Summary

Portrait of Nathaniel Lyon

Prelude Divided Sympathies in Missouri When the American Civil War began, the residents of the border state of Missouri had divided sympathies. Although many Missourians favored remaining in the Union, Governor Claiborne Jackson was a strong proponent of secession. Despite his secessionist leanings, Jackson declared his support for the Union and affirmed Missouri’s neutrality by … Read more

Monocacy, Battle, 1864, Overview

Portrait of Lew Wallace.

Prelude to the Battle Grant’s Umbrella Strategy On March 12, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant as General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States. Upon his arrival in Washington, Grant drafted a plan to have the various Union armies in the field to act in concert and strike the Confederacy from several … Read more

Continental Congress, First – Declaration and Resolves – Summary

Peyton Randolph, Founding Father, NYPL

Summary of the Declaration and Resolves The Declaration and Resolves is a document that was adopted by the First Continental Congress on October 14, 1774. It was issued in response to the passage of the Coercive Acts. Congress held its first meeting on September 5, 1776. In that meeting, the members decided to form a … Read more

Adams-Lee Junto – Summary

John Adams, Portrait, Stuart

During the Second Continental Congress, the push for independence was largely driven by Samual Adams, John Adams, and Richard Henry Lee. They led a faction that became known as the Adams-Lee Junto. Other members Adams-Lee Junto were: Wiliam Whipple James Lovell Arthur Lee Francis Lightfoot Lee Henry Laurens James Searle