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Fort Sanders, Battle, 1863, Overview

Portrait of James Longstreet.

Prelude to the Battle Tennessee Secedes from the Union On June 8, 1861, Tennessee became the last Southern state to secede from the Union. The decision, however, was far from unanimous. In the eastern part of the state, voters defeated a referendum on secession by some 20,000 votes at the polls. Starting an independent secessionist … Read more

Cumberland Gap, Battle, 1863, Overview

Prelude to the Battle On June 8, 1861, Tennessee became the last Southern state to secede from the Union. The decision, however, was far from unanimous. In the eastern part of the state, voters rejected the referendum on secession by about 20,000 votes. Starting an independent secessionist movement, citizens of East Tennessee petitioned the state … Read more

Campbell’s Station, Battle, 1863, Overview

James Longstreet, Portrait, Confederate General

Prelude to the Battle Tennessee Secedes from the Union On June 8, 1861, Tennessee became the last Southern state to secede from the Union. The decision, however, was far from unanimous. In the eastern part of the state, the referendum on secession lost by some 20,000 votes at the polls. Starting an independent secessionist movement, … Read more

Bean’s Station, Battle, 1863, Overview

Portrait of James Longstreet.

Prelude to the Battle Tennessee Secedes from the Union On June 8, 1861, Tennessee became the last Southern state to secede from the Union. The decision, however, was far from unanimous. In the eastern part of the state, voters defeated a referendum on secession by some 20,000 votes at the polls. Starting an independent secessionist … Read more

Wauhatchie, Battle, 1863, Overview

Portrait of Ulysses S. Grant

Prelude to the Battle Rosecrans Moves Toward Chattanooga On December 26, 1862, Major General William S. Rosecrans led the Union Army of the Cumberland out of Nashville, Tennessee with orders to capture Chattanooga, Tennessee. Chattanooga was an important railroad junction that connected the upper Confederacy with the Deep South. Between Rosecrans and Chattanooga was Lieutenant … Read more

Ringgold Gap, Battle, 1863, Overview

Joseph Hooker, Civil War General

Prelude to the Battle Rosecrans Moves Toward Chattanooga On December 26, 1862, Major General William S. Rosecrans led the Union Army of the Cumberland out of Nashville, Tennessee with orders to capture Chattanooga, Tennessee. Chattanooga was an important railroad junction that connected the upper Confederacy with the Deep South. Between Rosecrans and Chattanooga was Lieutenant … Read more

Piedmont, Battle, 1864, Overview

David Hunter, Civil War General

Prelude to the Battle Grant’s Umbrella Strategy On March 12, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant as General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States. Upon his arrival in Washington, Grant drafted a plan to have the various Union armies in the field to act in concert and strike the Confederacy from several … Read more

Orchard Knob, Battle, 1863, Overview

Thomas J Wood, Civil War General

Prelude to the Battle Rosecrans Moves Toward Chattanooga On December 26, 1862, Major General William S. Rosecrans led the Union Army of the Cumberland out of Nashville, Tennessee with orders to capture Chattanooga, Tennessee. Chattanooga was an important railroad junction that connected the upper Confederacy with the Deep South. Between Rosecrans and Chattanooga was Lieutenant … Read more

Chattanooga, Battle, 1863, Overview

Ulysses S Grant, at Cold Harbor, Portrait

Prelude to the Battle Battle of Stones River On December 26, 1862, Major General William S. Rosecrans led the Union Army of the Cumberland out of Nashville, Tennessee, with orders to capture Chattanooga, Tennessee. Chattanooga was an important railroad junction that connected the upper Confederacy with the Deep South. Between Rosecrans and Chattanooga was Lieutenant … Read more

Buzzard’s Roost, Battle, 1864, Overview

George Henry Thomas, Civil War General

Prelude to the Battle Federal Breakout from Chattanooga In late November 1863, Union forces commanded by Major General Ulysses S. Grant successfully lifted Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston’s siege of Chattanooga, Tennessee. Union victories at the Battle of Lookout Mountain (November 24) and the Battle of Missionary Ridge (November 25) forced Johnston to withdraw thirty … Read more

High Bridge, Battle, 1865, Overview

Andrew Humphreys, Civil War General

Prelude to the Battle of High Bridge Grant’s Umbrella Strategy On March 12, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant as General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States. Upon his arrival in Washington, Grant drafted a plan to get the various Union armies in the field to act in concert and strike the … Read more

Trevilian Station, Battle, 1864, Overview

Wade Hampton III, Civil War General

Prelude to the Battle Grant in Charge On March 10, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant as General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States. Grant brought with him, from his successes in the western theater of the war, a reputation for the doggedness Lincoln was seeking. Unlike other Union generals, Grant was … Read more

Spotsylvania Court House, Battle, 1864, Overview

Portrait of George G. Meade

Prelude to the Battle Grant in Charge On March 10, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant as General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States. Grant brought with him, from his successes in the western theater of the war, a reputation for the doggedness Lincoln was seeking. Unlike other Union generals, Grant was … Read more

Lincoln, Abraham – Biography

Abraham Lincoln, Portrait, Gardner

Abraham Lincoln Biography Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from 1861 until his assassination in 1865. He is widely considered one of the greatest American presidents and is revered for his leadership during the Civil War and his efforts to abolish slavery. Lincoln was a member of the Republican Party … Read more

Garfield, James Abram – Biography

James A Garfield, Civil War, General, Portrait

James A. Garfield Biography James Garfield was the 20th President of the United States, serving from March to September 1881. He was assassinated just six months into his presidency and is the second-shortest-serving president in American history. Garfield was a Republican and a former Union general during the Civil War. As president, he sought to … Read more

Hayes, Rutherford Birchard

Rutherford B Hayes, 19th President

Rutherford B. Hayes Biography Rutherford B. Hayes was the 19th President of the United States, serving from 1877 to 1881. He was a Republican and a former Governor of Ohio. His presidency was marked by the end of Reconstruction, the effort to rebuild the South after the Civil War and extend civil rights to African … Read more

McKinley, William, Jr.

William McKinley, 1897, Portrait, Benziger

William McKinley Biography William McKinley was the 25th President of the United States, serving from 1897 to 1901. He was a Republican and a former governor of Ohio. McKinley was known for his strong leadership during the Spanish-American War, in which the United States defeated Spain and acquired several new territories, including Puerto Rico and … Read more

Davis, Jefferson Finis – Biography

Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy

Early Life Jefferson Finis Davis was born on June 3, 1808, in Christian County, Kentucky (now part of Todd County). His birthplace was fewer than 100 miles from where future U.S. President Abraham Lincoln was born eight months later. Davis was the tenth and last child of Revolutionary War veteran Samuel Emory Davis and Jane … Read more

Cox, Jacob Dolson – Biography

Jacob D Cox, Civil War General

Early Life Jacob Cox was born in Montreal, Canada, on October 27, 1828. Although his family lived in New York, Cox’s father was a construction contractor and had taken his family to Montreal while he oversaw a construction project. When the project ended, the family returned to New York, where Cox received most of his … Read more

Hooker, Joseph

Joseph Hooker, Civil War General

Early Life Joseph Hooker was born in Hadley, Massachusetts on November 13, 1814. His parents were Joseph Hooker, a local storekeeper, and Mary Seymour. Hooker attended school at the Hopkins Academy in Hadley, Massachusetts before enrolling at the United States Military Academy in 1833. An average student, Hooker graduated from West Point in 1837, twenty-ninth … Read more