Key facts about the American Civil War Peninsula Campaign.
Also Known As
- Peninsular Campaign
Date and Location
- March–July, 1862
- Virginia Peninsula
Timeline of the Peninsula Campaign
- March 8–9, 1862 — Battle of Hampton Roads
- April 5–May 4, 1862 — Siege of Yorktown
- May 5, 1862 — Battle of Williamsburg
- May 15, 1862 — Battle of Drewry’s Bluff
- May 31–June 1, 1862 — Battle of Seven Pines
- June 25, 1862 — Battle of Oak Grove
- June 26, 1862 — Battle of Beaver Dam Creek
- June 27, 1862 — Battle of Gaines’ Mill
- June 29, 1862 — Battle of Savage’s Station
- June 30, 1862 — Battle of Glendale
- July 1, 1862 — Battle of Malvern Hill
Principal Union Commanders
- Major General George B. McClellan
Principal Confederate Commanders
Union Forces Engaged
- Army of the Potomac
Confederate Forces Engaged
- Army of Northern Virginia
Number of Union Soldiers Engaged
- Roughly 117,000
Number of Confederate Soldiers Engaged
- Roughly 100,000
Estimated Union Casualties
- 23,900 (16,800 killed and wounded, 7,100 captured or missing)
Estimated Confederate Casualties
- 29,600 (27,500 killed and wounded, 2,100 captured or missing)
- Confederate victory
- The goal of the Peninsula Campaign was to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, and bring about a quick end to the American Civil War.
- General Robert E. Lee replaced General Joseph E. Johnston as commander of the Army of Northern Virginia during the Peninsula Campaign (and for the remainder of the war) when Johnston was wounded at the Battle of Seven Pines (May 31 – June 1, 1862).
- McClellan’s invading Army of the Potomac had over 120,000 men.
- The Battle of Seven Pines, also known as the Battle of Fair Oaks (May 31 – June 1, 1862), halted the Union advance on Richmond, just six miles from the Confederate capital.
- A series of engagements collectively known as the Seven Days Battles drove the Union Army of the Potomac back down the peninsula, and away from Richmond.
- On August 3, 1862, President Lincoln and General-of-Army Henry Halleck ordered McClellan to leave the peninsula and reinforce the Army of Virginia near Manassas Station.