The Siege of Vicksburg was fought between the United States of America and the Confederate States of America from May 25, 1863, to July 4, 1863, during the American Civil War.
- Date Started: The Siege of Vicksburg started on Monday, May 25, 1863.
- Date Ended: The fighting ended on Saturday, July 4, 1863.
- Location: The siege took place at Vicksburg, Mississippi.
- Who Won: The United States of America won the Siege of Vicksburg.
- Civil War Campaign: The Siege of Vicksburg was part of the Vicksburg Campaign.
This illustration depicts General Ulysses S. Grant at the Siege of Vicksburg. Image Source: Library of Congress.
- Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton’s surrender of the Army of the Mississippi marked the second time that an entire Confederate army surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant, the first being at Fort Donelson.
- During the Siege of Vicksburg, inhabitants of the city dug over 500 caves that they inhabited to escape injury from Union bombardment.
- The Siege of Vicksburg ended one day after the Union victory at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Commanders and Forces Involved
Principal Union Commanders
- Major General Ulysses S. Grant
Principal Confederate Commanders
- Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton
Union Forces Engaged
- Army of the Tennessee
Confederate Forces Engaged
- Army of Mississippi
Casualties and Statistics
Number of Union Soldiers Engaged
- Roughly 75,000
Number of Confederate Soldiers Engaged
- Roughly 30,000
Estimated Union Casualties
- 4,835 (766 killed, 3,793 wounded, 276 captured/missing)
Estimated Confederate Casualties
- 32,697 (3,202 killed/wounded/missing, 29,495 surrendered)
Results of the Siege of Vicksburg
- The outcome of the Siege of Vicksburg was a Union victory.
- Vicksburg’s fall gave the Union complete control of the Mississippi River, reestablishing trade through the Gulf of Mexico.
- Vicksburg’s fall severed the Confederacy’s connections with territories in the American West, denying the South essential agricultural supplies.
- The success of the Vicksburg Campaign also restored Ulysses S. Grant’s reputation, which had suffered after the surprise attack at Shiloh. The renewed confidence in Grant would have a decisive impact on later events in the eastern theater and on the conclusion of the war.
Timeline of the Battle of Vicksburg
This list shows the main battles and events that took place before and after the Battle of Vicksburg, and how it fits into the chronological order of the Vicksburg Campaign.
- December 26–29, 1862 — Battle of Chickasaw Bayou
- February 3–April 8, 1863 — Yazoo Pass Expedition
- March 11–18, 1863 — Battle of Fort Pemberton
- April 29, 1863 — Battle of Grand Gulf
- May 1, 1863 — Battle of Port Gibson
- May 12, 1863 — Battle of Raymond
- May 14, 1863 — Battle of Jackson
- May 16, 1863 — Battle of Champion Hill
- May 17, 1863 — Battle of Big Black River Bridge
- May 25–July 4, 1863 — Siege of Vicksburg
- July 4, 1863 — Surrender at Vicksburg
- July 4, 1863 — Battle of Helena