William McKinley — 25th President of the United States

January 29, 1843–September 14, 1901

William McKinley was the 25th President of the United States. McKinley also served an officer in the Union army during the Civil War, represented Ohio in the U.S. House of Representatives, and served as Governor of Ohio.

William McKinley, 1897, Portrait, Benziger

President William McKinley. Image Source: National Portrait Gallery.

William McKinley Biography

William McKinley was the 25th President of the United States, serving from 1897 to 1901. He was a Republican and a former governor of Ohio. McKinley was known for his strong leadership during the Spanish-American War, in which the United States defeated Spain and acquired several new territories, including Puerto Rico and Guam. During his presidency, McKinley also worked to promote American commerce and industry, and he signed into law the Gold Standard Act, which established the gold standard as the basis for the American monetary system. Despite these accomplishments, McKinley’s presidency was marked by controversy, particularly over his handling of the nation’s finances and his support for high tariffs. He was assassinated in 1901, just six months into his second term.

William McKinley Facts

  • Date of Birth: William McKinley was born on January 29, 1843, in Niles, Ohio.
  • Parents: McKinley’s parents were William McKinley, Sr., and Nancy (Allison) McKinley.
  • Date of Death: McKinley died on September 14, 1901, in Buffalo, New York.
  • Buried: McKinley is buried in the McKinley National Memorial in Canton, Ohio.
  • Nickname: McKinley’s nicknames were “The Napoleon of Protection” and “Big Bill.”

Life and Career of William McKinley

Early Life

William McKinley, Jr., was born on January 29, 1843, in Niles, Ohio. He was the seventh of nine children of William McKinley, Sr., and Nancy Allison McKinley. In 1853, McKinley moved with his family to Poland, Ohio. As a youth, McKinley attended Poland Seminary. Thereafter, he briefly attended Allegheny College but did not graduate.

Civil War

When the Civil War began, McKinley enlisted as a private in the 23rd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, serving under future United States President Rutherford B. Hayes. McKinley spent the first year of the war in western Virginia, fighting small Confederate units, earning him a promotion to the rank of sergeant. On September 24, 1862, Hayes promoted McKinley to second lieutenant for bravery during the Battle of Antietam. Later, army officials promoted McKinley to captain on July 25, 1864. During the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864, McKinley served on General George Crook‘s staff at the battles of Opequon, Fisher’s Hill, and Cedar Creek. On March 14, 1865, McKinley received a brevet promotion to major for gallant and meritorious service. On July 26, 1865, he mustered out of the volunteer army.

Law Career

Following the Civil War, McKinley attended Albany Law School in Albany, New York. Afterward, he joined the Ohio bar in March 1867. McKinley practiced law in Canton, Ohio from 1869 to 1871. In 1869, voters elected him as Stark County’s prosecuting attorney.

Marriage

That same year, McKinley met Ida Saxton, and the couple married in 1871. 

Political Activity

While serving as a Stark County prosecutor, McKinley became active in the Republican Party. He campaigned for fellow Ohioans Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, and James A. Garfield throughout their political careers.

Congressman

McKinley represented Ohio’s 18th district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1877 to 1882 and from 1885 to 1891. As a congressman, McKinley was the Republican Party’s leading spokesman for protectionism in foreign trade. His McKinley Tariff of 1890 established substantially higher tariff rates on imported goods to protect U.S. business and manufacturing.

Ohio Governor

In 1891, McKinley defeated Democrat James E. Campbell to become Ohio’s Governor. McKinley gained more national prominence when he served as president of the National Republican Convention in 1892. In 1893, McKinley defeated Democrat Lawrence T. Neal to earn a second term as Ohio’s Governor.

25th President of the United States

Soon after his re-election, McKinley became a leading contender for the Republican nomination for president in the 1896 election. In June of that year, delegates to the National Republican Convention in St. Louis, Missouri overwhelmingly nominated McKinley as their candidate on the first ballot. In November, McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in the presidential election of 1896. Inaugurated on March 4, 1897, McKinley was the last Civil War veteran to serve as President of the United States.

Foreign Affairs

Foreign affairs dominated McKinley’s first term as president. In April 1898, Congress declared war on Spain, despite McKinley’s misgivings. During that summer, McKinley signed the Newlands Resolution, completing the controversial annexation of Hawaii. When the Spanish-American War ended in July, the United States assumed control of Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam. The U.S. also installed a military government in Cuba until the island nation established its independence in 1902. In 1899, McKinley found himself embroiled in an armed conflict with Filipino nationalists resisting American intervention and fighting for Philippine independence.

Domestic Issues

During McKinley’s presidency, his reluctance to use the Sherman Antitrust Act contributed to unprecedented consolidation and abuses by big business. As the nation prospered, the assault on the civil rights of black Americans intensified. Although McKinley supported equal rights for black Americans, he was unwilling to use the power of the federal government to halt the growing proliferation of Jim Crow laws in the South and the general expansion of segregationist policies nationwide.

Reelection

On June 19, 1900, delegates to the National Republican Convention in Philadelphia unanimously nominated McKinley as their candidate for President of the United States. In November, he easily defeated William Jennings Bryan again.

Assassination of President William McKinley

McKinley’s second term lasted only a few months. At 4:07 p.m. on September 6, 1901, a self-professed anarchist Leon Czolgosz shot the president twice at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. Although it initially appeared that McKinley’s wounds were not life-threatening, he developed gangrene and died eight days later, at 2:15 a.m., on September 14, 1901.

McKinley’s funeral was held at the Milburn Mansion in Buffalo, New York, and his body lay in state for public mourning at the Buffalo City Hall. Officials returned the president’s body to the White House and then the U.S. Capitol before transporting it to Canton, Ohio for burial. McKinley was interred at West Lawn Cemetery in Canton, Ohio. His remains were later moved to the McKinley National Memorial in Canton, Ohio, which was dedicated on September 30, 1907.

William McKinley Significance

William McKinley is important to United States history because he served as the 25th President of the United States (1897–1901). McKinley was a Republican and a former Senator, Congressman, and Ohio Governor who campaigned on a platform of economic growth and political stability. As a Senator, he sponsored the McKinley Tariff, which raised taxes on imported goods to protect American businesses. McKinley also promoted American expansion and imperialism. He was President during the Spanish-American War, which established the United States as a global power. At home, McKinley nominally supported equal rights for black Americans, but he was unwilling to use the power of the federal government to halt the growing proliferation of Jim Crow laws in the South and the general expansion of segregationist policies nationwide. Despite his efforts to promote economic growth and political stability, political polarization and economic recession tarnished McKinley’s presidency.

William McKinley APUSH Review

Use the following links and videos to study William McKinley, the Civil War, and the Spanish American War for the AP US History Exam. Also, be sure to look at our Guide to the AP US History Exam.

William McKinley Definition APUSH

William McKinley for APUSH is defined as the 25th President of the United States, serving from 1897 until his assassination in 1901. He was a Republican known for his strong leadership during the Spanish-American War and for his support for the gold standard. He also signed the Dingley Tariff Act, which raised tariffs to protect American businesses. During his time in office, the economy was booming and he was considered a popular leader. He was succeeded as President by Theodore Roosevelt.

William McKinley Video for APUSH Notes

This video from Biographics discusses the career of President William McKinley.

Citation Information

The following information is provided for citations.

  • Article Title William McKinley — 25th President of the United States
  • Date January 29, 1843–September 14, 1901
  • Author
  • Keywords William McKinley, 25th President of the United States, Civil War veteran, Governor of Ohio
  • Website Name American History Central
  • Access Date December 3, 2023
  • Publisher R.Squared Communications, LLC
  • Original Published Date
  • Date of Last Update October 16, 2023

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