Beaufort at Port Royal Island, Battle of

William Moultrie, Portrait

Summary of the Battle of Beaufort The Battle of Beaufort  — also known as the Battle of Port Royal Island — was a battle between the United States of America and Great Britain that took place on February 3, 1779, in and around Beaufort, South Carolina on Port Royal Island. After the British captured Savannah … Read more

White Plains, Battle of

General William Howe, Illustration

Battle of White Plains Summary The Battle of White Plains took place on October 28, 1776, between the United States of America and Great Britain. After British forces took control of New York City on September 15, General George Washington was forced to move north to Harlem Heights with the Continental Army. British forces, led … Read more

Savannah, Capture of, 1778

Lt Colonel Archibald Campbell, American Revolution

Summary of the Capture of Savannah in 1778 The Capture of Savannah — or the First Battle of Savannah — was a battle between the United States of America and Great Britain that took place on December 29, 1778, in and around Savannah, Georgia. It was the first move in the British Southern Campaign, a … Read more

South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification, Definition and Text

John C Calhoun, Portrait

South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification Definition The South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification is an ordinance passed by the State of South Carolina for the purpose of declaring the Tariff of 1828 and the Tariff of 1832 unconstitutional in the state, and cannot be enforced by the United States. Further, if the United States uses force … Read more

South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification, 1832

John C Calhoun, Portrait

South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification Summary The South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification was a proclamation issued by South Carolina that said certain legislation passed by the federal government was unconstitutional. As a result, South Carolina “nullified” the Tariff of 1828 and the Tariff of 1832.  Tariffs raised prices on imported goods and products by adding … Read more

Force Bill, Definition and Text, 1833

Andrew Jackson, Portrait, Painting

Force Bill Definition The Force Bill of 1833 is an act passed by Congress and signed into law by President Andrew Jackson for the purpose of allowing the President to use military force to enforce customs duties. The bill was passed during the Nullification Crisis in order to force South Carolina to enforce the terms … Read more

Force Act, Summary

Andrew Jackson, Portrait, Painting

Force Bill of 1833 Summary In 1828, President John Quincy Adams approved a new tariff that taxed some products and raw materials that were being imported into the United States. The purpose of the tariff was to raise money for the government. However, it was heavily criticized and was referred to as the “Tariff of … Read more

Pell’s Point, Battle of

General John Glover, Marblehead Men

Battle of Pell’s Point Summary The Battle of Pell’s Point — also called the Battle of Pelham — took place on October 18, 1776, between the United States of America and Great Britain. Although it was a small battle, it played an important role in the New York and New Jersey Campaign of 1776–1777. Over the … Read more

Middle Colonies, Colonial America

Benjamin Franklin, Portrait, Duplessis

The Middle Colonies in Colonial America — A Guide to Four of the 13 Original Colonies  The British Colonies in America were divided into three regions — New England, Middle, and Southern. The four Middle Colonies, located in the Mid-Atlantic region, were: Quick Facts About the Middle Colonies Here are five important facts about the … Read more

Pilgrim Fathers – Who Was On the Mayflower? Known Passengers and Crew

Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor, 1620

Summary of Who Was on the Mayflower When the Mayflower left Plymouth, England on September 6, 1620, there were two distinct groups of people on board: Passengers Crewmembers The passengers can be broken down further into three distinct groups: Separatists from Leiden Planters recruited by the Merchant Adventurers Servants, Indentured Servants, and Apprentices Facts About … Read more

Pilgrims in Colonial America

Embarkation of the Pilgrims, Weir

Pilgrims in Colonial America, a Quick Summary of New England’s Founding Fathers The Pilgrims were a group of English colonists who emigrated to New England and established Plymouth Plantation — or Plymouth Colony — in 1620. Many of the Pilgrims were Puritan Separatists, who sought religious freedom. They were joined on their journey to New … Read more

Pilgrim Fathers — Landmarks and Memorials in Leiden

Green Market, Leiden, 1660

The Pilgrims in Leiden The Pilgrims — also known as the Pilgrim Fathers — were Puritan Separatists who fled Europe in 1620, sailed across the ocean on a ship called the Mayflower, and established the first permanent English settlement in New England — New Plymouth. The Separatists that eventually went to America started their church … Read more

Leiden American Pilgrim Museum — Pilgrim Landmark Leiden

Green Market, Leiden, 1660

Leiden American Pilgrim Museum The Leiden American Pilgrim Museum is dedicated to the Pilgrim Fathers and documents their history in the city. According to the museum’s website, it is “Located in a beautifully preserved house built ca 1365-1370 near the clock tower of the Hooglandse Kerk, the Leiden American Pilgrim museum tells the stories of … Read more

Jean Pesynhof, Site of John Robinson Home — Pilgrim Landmark Leiden

John Robinson House, Leiden

The Home of Pilgrim Father John Robinson in Leiden In 1611, John Robinson, William Jepson, Henry Wood, and Jane White bought property in Leiden, near Pieterskerk — St. Peter’s Church. The property included a large 2-story house. Robinson and his family lived on the upper floor and the Separatist congregation held its meeting on Sundays … Read more

Pilgrim Press Plaque at Brewster Alley — Pilgrim Landmark Leiden

Pilgrim Press Plaque, William Brewster Alley, Leiden

Pilgrim Press Plaque at William Brewster Alley This marker is above the entrance to William Brewstersteeg — William Brewster Alley — in Leiden. When Brewster lived in the alley, it was known as Stinksteeg — or Smelly Alley. Map of Pilgrim Press Plaque at Brewster Alley Text on the Pilgrim Press Plaque at Brewster Alley … Read more

Leiden University — Pilgrim Landmark Leiden

Pieterskerk, Exterior, Leiden

Pilgrim Fathers and Leiden University One of the reasons the Pilgrims chose Leiden as their new home was the presence of Leiden University. After they settled in Leiden, William Brewster taught English there and John Robinson participated in religious debates. Map of Leiden University Brief History of Leiden University This short description of Leiden University … Read more

John Robinson Burial Site at Pieterskerk — Pilgrim Landmark Leiden

John Robinson Burial Site, Pieterskerk, Leiden

Burial Site of John Robinson in Leiden John Robinson died in 1625 before he could voyage to America and join the Pilgrims at Plymouth. He was buried at Pieterskerk in Leiden. In 1928, a tablet was placed inside Pieterskerk that commemorates his role as a Pilgrim Father and leader of the Leiden congregation. John Robinson … Read more

Pilgrims Historic Marker at Pieterskerk — Pilgrim Landmark Leiden

Pilgrims in Leiden Historical Marker, Pieterskerk

Pilgrims in Leiden Historic Marker This marker is outside Pieterskerk — St. Peter’s Church — in Leiden, across the street from where John Robinson and many of the Pilgrims lived. It is in front of the plaques to John Robinson and the Separatists that died in Leiden. Map of the Pilgrim Historic Marker Pilgrims in … Read more

Pilgrim Fathers Memorial — Pilgrim Landmark Leiden

The Pilgrim Fathers Leave Leiden In July 1620, a group of Separatists — the Pilgrim Fathers — left Leiden and started their journey to America. From Leiden, they traveled to Delfshaven. There is a small sculpture on the bank of Vliet canal that commemorates the event. The sculpture does not mark the spot from where … Read more