Rhode Island, Battle

General John Sullivan, Portrait, Illustration

Battle of Rhode Island Summary The Battle of Rhode Island was fought on August 29, 1778, between the United States of America and Great Britain. The battle took place as American forces, under the command of General John Sullivan, ended a short siege of Newport, Rhode Island after French forces withdrew their support and sailed … Read more

Howe, Richard

Richard Howe, Admiral, British Royal Navy

Who was Richard Howe? Richard Howe was an Admiral in the British Royal Navy and commanded the British Royal Navy’s North American Station during the American Revolutionary War from 1776 to 1778. He is often criticized for failing to take advantage of situations that may have ended the war as early as 1776. Following the … Read more

Wilderness Road

Daniel Boone, First View of Kentucky, Painting, Ranney

Wilderness Road Summary The Wilderness Road served as a principal route connecting the colonies on the East Coast to the interior lands of the Ohio River Basin. The road was a broad loop that began in Virginia near the Potomac River, stretched down the Shenandoah Valley to Staunton, and then to the Holston River, continuing … Read more

Anglo-Dutch War, First

First Anglo Dutch War, Battle of Scheveningen

First Anglo-Dutch War Summary The First Anglo-Dutch War was a conflict fought entirely at sea between the navies of the Commonwealth of England and the United Provinces of the Netherlands, also known as the Dutch Republic.  The war was caused by disputes over maritime shipping rights and political disagreements, including Parliament’s passage of the 1651 … Read more

Jenkins’ Ear, War

James Oglethorpe, Founder of Georgia, Illustration

War of Jenkins’ Ear Summary The War of Jenkins’ Ear was fought between Great Britain and Spain from 1739 to 1748. Most of the battles were fought in the Caribbean, but it carried over to America. In 1740, the Georgia Colony sent military forces into Spanish Florida, where they destroyed Spanish forts and laid siege … Read more

Witchcraft Colonial America

Cotton Mather, Portrait, Pelham, 1727

Witchcraft in Colonial America — Interesting Facts About Witches in the 13 Original Colonies Witchcraft was Blamed for Bad Luck Witchcraft was often used to explain bad luck or misfortune, including poor crops and the outbreak of sickness and disease.  Many Colonists Believed Indians Were in League with the Devil Many colonists, both Protestants and … Read more

Hooker, Thomas

Thomas Hooker, Illustration

Who was Thomas Hooker? Thomas Hooker (1586–1647) was a prominent Puritan minister and theologian who played an important role in the founding of the Province of Connecticut. Hooker was known as the “Father of Connecticut” due to his contributions to the establishment of the colony and influence on the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. He was … Read more

Pennsylvania Colony — Facts

William Penn, Founder of Pennsylvania, Illustration, NYPL

Essential Facts About Pennsylvania Colony Pennsylvania Colony was founded in 1681 when King Charles II granted a charter to William Penn for the establishment of a new colony between Maryland and New York, in a region that was initially part of New Sweden and then New Netherland. The King named the colony Pennsylvania, in honor … Read more

Otis, Jr., James

James Otis, Portrait, Illustration, NYPL

Who was James Otis? James Otis was a successful lawyer from Boston, Massachusetts who played a key role in helping shape the ideology of the American Revolution Otis was a prolific writer and speaker and used his skills to lead opposition to British policies, including Writs of Assistance, the Sugar Act, the Townshend Acts, and … Read more

Henry, the Navigator, Prince

Prince Henry the Navigator, Illustration

Who was Prince Henry the Navigator? Prince Henry the Navigator, also known as Infante Dom Henrique, was a Portuguese prince born on March 3, 1394, in Porto, Portugal. He was the third surviving son of King John I and Philippa of Lancaster.  Although he was neither a sailor nor a navigator, he sponsored a great … Read more

Regions of British Colonies, APUSH Unit 2, Topic 2.3

Benjamin Franklin, Portrait, Duplessis

Regions of the British Colonies Summary Following the failure of Roanoke Colony and Popham Colony, England finally established a permanent settlement at Jamestown. 13 years later, the Pilgrims sailed to New England on the Mayflower, landed at Cape Cod, and established Plymouth. APUSH 2.3 Review Video This video from Heimler’s History provides an excellent overview … Read more

Lake Champlain, Battle, 1609

Samuel de Champlain, Father of New France, Illustration

Battle of Lake Champlain Summary The Battle of Lake Champlain was fought between Algonquin, Huron, and Montagnais warriors against the Iroquois Confederacy on July 22, 1609, at Lake Champlain.  A small contingent of French, led by Samuel de Champlain, fought with the Algonquin. It was the first battle in the Beaver Wars and the first … Read more

Great Dying

Pilgrims, Treaty with Massasoit, Illustration

What was the Great Dying? The Great Dying in New England was a catastrophic event that occurred when an epidemic of an unknown disease swept through the Native American Indian tribes living in New England. It left portions of New England relatively unpopulated, including Patuxet. On December 11, 1620, the Pilgrims explored the area of … Read more

Pueblo Revolt

Pueblo Revolt, WPA Mural, 1936, Detail

What was the Pueblo Revolt? The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 — also known as Popé’s Rebellion — was an uprising by the Pueblo People, led by a Medicine Man named Popé, against the Spanish in the Province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, or New Mexico. The Pueblos successfully drove the Spanish from the province … Read more

Winthrop, John

John Winthrop, Massachusetts Bay Governor

Who was John Winthrop? John Winthrop (1588–1649) was a Puritan religious and political leader who played an important role in the establishment, growth, and governance of Massachusetts Bay Colony. He was born into a wealthy English family, became a Puritan, and worked as a lawyer in the English Courts. After the Church of England levied … Read more

Yorktown, Battle, Overview

Washington Before the Battle of Trenton, Painting, Trumbull

Battle of Yorktown Summary The Battle of Yorktown — also known as the Siege of Yorktown — took place from September 28, 1781, to October 19, 1781, in and around Yorktown, Virginia. It was the last major battle of the American Revolutionary War. American and French ground forces under the commands of General George Washington … Read more

Sugar Act, Facts

George Grenville, Prime Minister, Portrait

Sugar Act Facts Sugar Act facts about the bill. 10 Important Sugar Act Facts Sugar Act facts about how it was enforced and affected the American Colonies. More Causes of the American Revolution British Treasury Needs Money After the Seven Years’ War Sugar Act Facts to Know — Although Britain won the Seven Years’ War … Read more

European Colonization in the Americas, APUSH Unit 2, Topic 2.2

Sir Walter Raleigh, Portrait, 1590

Summary of European Colonization in the Americas For more than a century after the arrival of Christopher Columbus, European nations worked to colonize the Caribbean and the Americas.  Spain dominated, establishing colonies across the Caribbean, South America, and up into the present-day American Southwest. Spain also controlled present-day Florida. France and England established colonies in … Read more

Dominion of New England

King James II of England, Portrait

Dominion of New England Summary In 1686, King James II of England, the Privy Council, and the Lords of Trade decided to merge the colonies in New England together under a single government. Under the new arrangement, the colonies were known as the “Dominion of New England.” Purpose of the Dominion of New England The … Read more

Iroquois Confederacy

Cornplanter, Portrait, 1796, Bartoli, NYHS

What was the Iroquois Confederacy? The Iroquois Confederacy — also known as the Six Nations and the Haudenosaunee — was a league made up of six distinct Native American Indian nations that spoke the same language, called “Iroquois.” The nations were the Mohawks, Cayugas, Oneidas, Onondagas, Senecas, and Tuscaroras. The Confederacy held significant influence and … Read more