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Washington Crossing the Delaware

Washington Crossing the Delaware, Painting, Leutze

Summary of Washington Crossing the Delaware River After retreating through New Jersey, General George Washington crossed his army over the Delaware River and into Pennsylvania. The situation was bleak for both Washington and his army. His officers were questioning his ability to lead, and the soldiers were short on food, supplies, and clothing — some … Read more

Washington’s Retreat Through New Jersey, 1776

Washington Before the Battle of Trenton, Painting, Trumbull

Summary of Washington’s Retreat Through New Jersey to Pennsylvania General George Washington’s retreat through New Jersey to Pennsylvania took place from November 20, 1776, until December 8, 1776. After the British captured Fort Lee, General Washington and his men retreated across New Jersey, southeast toward the town of Trenton. British forces under the command of … Read more

Monroe, James – Biography

James Monroe, 5th President, Founding Father

James Monroe Biography James Monroe was the fifth President of the United States, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War, and a Founding Father. He was born in Virginia on April 28, 1758, and attended the College of William & Mary. During the war, he was seriously wounded — and nearly died — at the … Read more

Jackson, Andrew – Biography

Andrew Jackson, Portrait, Painting

Andrew Jackson Biography Andrew Jackson was the seventh President of the United States and a hero of the War of 1812. He was born on March 15, 1767, in the Waxhaws region along the border of North and South Carolina. During the American Revolutionary War, Jackson served as a courier for the local militia. After … Read more

Garrison, William Lloyd

William Lloyd Garrison, Abolitionist, Portrait

William Lloyd Garrison Biography William Lloyd Garrison was an abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer from Massachusetts. He is best known for founding the anti-slavery newspaper “The Liberator” and his involvement in the American Anti-Slavery Society, which he helped start. Garrison started his career in journalism in 1818 — when he was 13 years old — … Read more

Grenville, George

George Grenville, Prime Minister, Portrait

George Grenville Biography George Grenville was a British statesman and politician who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1763 to 1765. Grenville played an important role in developing legislation that was directed at the American Colonies for the purpose of raising revenue for the British Treasury, specifically the Sugar Act of 1764, the … Read more

Fort Washington, Battle of

General Nathanael Greene, Portrait, Illustration

Battle of Fort Washington Summary The Battle of Fort Washington was fought on November 16, 1776, between the United States of America and Great Britain. It was a key battle in the Northern Theater of the American Revolutionary War, and the last battle in New York during the New York-New Jersey Campaign of 1776–1777. Following … Read more

Leedstown Resolves

Richard Henry Lee, Illustration

Leedstown Resolves Summary The Leedstown Resolves — or Leedstown Resolutions — is a document that organized the Westmoreland Association, for the purpose of resisting the Stamp Act and ensuring Virginians in Westmoreland County did not comply with the law. The document was written by Richard Henry Lee and signed at Leedstown, Virginia on February 27, … Read more

Boston Non-Importation Agreement of 1768

John Hancock, Portrait, Copley

Summary of the Boston Non-Importation Agreement of 1768 The Boston Non-Importation Agreement was a trade boycott of British goods that was implemented by merchants and traders in Boston to protest the passage of the Townshend Revenue Act. The agreement was initially signed on August 1, 1768, by most of the merchants and traders in Boston, … Read more

Confiscation Act of 1861, Summary

John Armour Bingham, Ohio, Congressman, Portrait

Summary of the Confiscation Act of 1861 The Confiscation Act of 1861 was a law that declared fugitive slaves who were used to aid the Confederate war effort were contraband — illegal goods — and could be confiscated by Union forces. The owners of contraband slaves also lost all rights to ownership. The act only … Read more

New Hampshire Colony — Facts

Benning Wentworth, Governor of New Hampshire

Essential Facts About Colonial New Hampshire The establishment of the New Hampshire Colony started in 1622 when the Council for New England gave a grant to Captain John Mason and Sir Ferdinando Gorges for the territory between the Merrimack River and Kennebec River. Mason and Gorges sponsored an expedition to their territory for the purpose … Read more

Beaufort at Port Royal Island, Battle of

William Moultrie, Portrait

Summary of the Battle of Beaufort The Battle of Beaufort  — also known as the Battle of Port Royal Island — was a battle between the United States of America and Great Britain that took place on February 3, 1779, in and around Beaufort, South Carolina on Port Royal Island. After the British captured Savannah … Read more

White Plains, Battle of

General William Howe, Illustration

Battle of White Plains Summary The Battle of White Plains took place on October 28, 1776, between the United States of America and Great Britain. After British forces took control of New York City on September 15, General George Washington was forced to move north to Harlem Heights with the Continental Army. British forces, led … Read more

Savannah, Capture of, 1778

Lt Colonel Archibald Campbell, American Revolution

Summary of the Capture of Savannah in 1778 The Capture of Savannah — or the First Battle of Savannah — was a battle between the United States of America and Great Britain that took place on December 29, 1778, in and around Savannah, Georgia. It was the first move in the British Southern Campaign, a … Read more

South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification, Definition and Text

John C Calhoun, Portrait

South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification Definition The South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification is an ordinance passed by the State of South Carolina for the purpose of declaring the Tariff of 1828 and the Tariff of 1832 unconstitutional in the state, and cannot be enforced by the United States. Further, if the United States uses force … Read more

South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification, 1832

John C Calhoun, Portrait

South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification Summary The South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification was a proclamation issued by South Carolina that said certain legislation passed by the federal government was unconstitutional. As a result, South Carolina “nullified” the Tariff of 1828 and the Tariff of 1832.  Tariffs raised prices on imported goods and products by adding … Read more

Force Bill, Definition and Text, 1833

Andrew Jackson, Portrait, Painting

Force Bill Definition The Force Bill of 1833 is an act passed by Congress and signed into law by President Andrew Jackson for the purpose of allowing the President to use military force to enforce customs duties. The bill was passed during the Nullification Crisis in order to force South Carolina to enforce the terms … Read more

Force Act, Summary

Andrew Jackson, Portrait, Painting

Force Bill of 1833 Summary In 1828, President John Quincy Adams approved a new tariff that taxed some products and raw materials that were being imported into the United States. The purpose of the tariff was to raise money for the government. However, it was heavily criticized and was referred to as the “Tariff of … Read more

Pell’s Point, Battle of

General John Glover, Marblehead Men

Battle of Pell’s Point Summary The Battle of Pell’s Point — also called the Battle of Pelham — took place on October 18, 1776, between the United States of America and Great Britain. Although it was a small battle, it played an important role in the New York and New Jersey Campaign of 1776–1777. Over the … Read more

Middle Colonies, Colonial America

Benjamin Franklin, Portrait, Duplessis

The Middle Colonies in Colonial America — A Guide to Four of the 13 Original Colonies  The British Colonies in America were divided into three regions — New England, Middle, and Southern. The four Middle Colonies, located in the Mid-Atlantic region, were: Quick Facts About the Middle Colonies Here are five important facts about the … Read more