Great White Fleet

Great White Fleet, Roach, Painting

Great White Fleet Summary The Great White Fleet (1907–1909) was a fleet of 16 U.S. Navy ships — painted white — that sailed around the world for the purpose of displaying the naval power of the United States to Japan and other nations. The fleet was dispatched by President Theodore Roosevelt in an effort to … Read more

Prevost, Augustine

General Augustine Prevost, Illustration

Who was Augustine Prevost? Augustine Prevost was a British commander in East Florida from 1723 to 1786. During the American Revolutionary War, he led forces in the South. He also defended against the Americans and French in the Siege of Savannah and later returned to England. Augustine Prevost Facts — 5 Things to Know Augustine … Read more

Big Stick Diplomacy

Theodore Roosevelt, 1901, Portrait, Perry, LOC

Big Stick Diplomacy Summary President Theodore Roosevelt believed the United States should use its military strength to protect its interests. In 1902, he urged Congress to adopt a strong approach, saying the nation needed to “speak softly and carry a big stick.”  Roosevelt believed America had the right — and responsibility — to intervene in … Read more

Clark, George Rogers

George Rogers Clark, Portrait, Longacre

George Rogers Clark, a Short Biography George Rogers Clark (1752–1818) is recognized for securing the region between the Ohio River and Mississippi River for the United States of America during the American Revolutionary War. With support from Virginia’s government, he set out with a small force in 1778 and successfully captured Kaskaskia and Vincennes. While … Read more

Tarleton, Banastre

Banastrae Tarleton, Portrait, Reynolds

Who was Banastre Tarleton? Banastre Tarleton (1754–1833) was a British officer and politician who rose to prominence during the American Revolutionary War. He was known for his brutal tactics, earning the nickname, “Bloody Ban.” A British dragoon officer, he arrived in America in 1776. While he participated in battles around New York and Philadelphia, he … Read more

American Revolution, History and Timeline

James Otis, Portrait, Illustration, NYPL

Origins and Causes of the American Revolution America’s transition from the 13 Original Colonies to an independent nation has two phases. The first phase, the American Revolution is covered here. It roughly lasted from 1763 to 1774 and saw Britain pass laws and regulations to raise taxes from the colonists.  The laws and regulations were … Read more

Black Codes

President Andrew Johnson, Photograph, LOC

What were the Black Codes of 1865–1866? Black Codes were laws enacted by the legislatures of former Confederate States in 1865 and 1866, in response to the passage of the 13th Amendment, which abolished slavery. The laws were intended to restrict the rights and freedoms of slaves who were freed in the wake of the … Read more

Radical Republicans

Thaddeus Stevens, Radical Republican, LOC

Who were the Radical Republicans? The Radical Republicans were a faction within the Republican Party that existed from the mid-1850s through the Reconstruction Era. They briefly held control of Congress after the Civil War, and aimed to make significant changes in the South. Important leaders included Thaddeus Stevens in the House of Representatives and Charles … Read more

Lafayette, Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de

Marquis de Lafayette, Portrait, Illustration

Who was Marquis de Lafayette? Marquis de Lafayette was a French aristocrat and soldier who heard about the Patriot Cause while attending a dinner in France in 1775. Soon after, he made arrangements to travel to America, where he volunteered to serve in the Continental Army, without pay. During the war, Lafayette became one of … Read more

Rhode Island, Battle

General John Sullivan, Portrait, Illustration

Battle of Rhode Island Summary The Battle of Rhode Island was fought on August 29, 1778, between the United States of America and Great Britain. The battle took place as American forces, under the command of General John Sullivan, ended a short siege of Newport, Rhode Island after French forces withdrew their support and sailed … Read more

Howe, Richard

Richard Howe, Admiral, British Royal Navy

Who was Richard Howe? Richard Howe was an Admiral in the British Royal Navy and commanded the British Royal Navy’s North American Station during the American Revolutionary War from 1776 to 1778. He is often criticized for failing to take advantage of situations that may have ended the war as early as 1776. Following the … Read more

Wilderness Road

Daniel Boone, First View of Kentucky, Painting, Ranney

Wilderness Road Summary The Wilderness Road served as a principal route connecting the colonies on the East Coast to the interior lands of the Ohio River Basin. The road was a broad loop that began in Virginia near the Potomac River, stretched down the Shenandoah Valley to Staunton, and then to the Holston River, continuing … Read more

Anglo-Dutch War, First

First Anglo Dutch War, Battle of Scheveningen

First Anglo-Dutch War Summary The First Anglo-Dutch War was a conflict fought entirely at sea between the navies of the Commonwealth of England and the United Provinces of the Netherlands, also known as the Dutch Republic.  The war was caused by disputes over maritime shipping rights and political disagreements, including Parliament’s passage of the 1651 … Read more

Jenkins’ Ear, War

James Oglethorpe, Founder of Georgia, Illustration

War of Jenkins’ Ear Summary The War of Jenkins’ Ear was fought between Great Britain and Spain from 1739 to 1748. Most of the battles were fought in the Caribbean, but it carried over to America. In 1740, the Georgia Colony sent military forces into Spanish Florida, where they destroyed Spanish forts and laid siege … Read more

Witchcraft Colonial America

Cotton Mather, Portrait, Pelham, 1727

Witchcraft in Colonial America — Interesting Facts About Witches in the 13 Original Colonies Witchcraft was Blamed for Bad Luck Witchcraft was often used to explain bad luck or misfortune, including poor crops and the outbreak of sickness and disease.  Many Colonists Believed Indians Were in League with the Devil Many colonists, both Protestants and … Read more

Hooker, Thomas

Thomas Hooker, Illustration

Who was Thomas Hooker? Thomas Hooker (1586–1647) was a prominent Puritan minister and theologian who played an important role in the founding of the Province of Connecticut. Hooker was known as the “Father of Connecticut” due to his contributions to the establishment of the colony and influence on the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. He was … Read more

Pennsylvania Colony — Facts

William Penn, Founder of Pennsylvania, Illustration, NYPL

Essential Facts About Pennsylvania Colony Pennsylvania Colony was founded in 1681 when King Charles II granted a charter to William Penn for the establishment of a new colony between Maryland and New York, in a region that was initially part of New Sweden and then New Netherland. The King named the colony Pennsylvania, in honor … Read more

Otis, Jr., James

James Otis, Portrait, Illustration, NYPL

Who was James Otis? James Otis was a successful lawyer from Boston, Massachusetts who played a key role in shaping the ideology of the American Revolution. Otis was a prolific writer and speaker and used his skills to lead opposition to British policies, including Writs of Assistance, the Sugar Act, the Townshend Acts, and the … Read more

Henry, the Navigator, Prince

Prince Henry the Navigator, Illustration

Who was Prince Henry the Navigator? Prince Henry the Navigator, also known as Infante Dom Henrique, was a Portuguese prince born on March 3, 1394, in Porto, Portugal. He was the third surviving son of King John I and Philippa of Lancaster.  Although he was neither a sailor nor a navigator, he sponsored a great … Read more

Regions of British Colonies, APUSH Unit 2, Topic 2.3

Benjamin Franklin, Portrait, Duplessis

Regions of the British Colonies Summary Following the failure of Roanoke Colony and Popham Colony, England finally established a permanent settlement at Jamestown. 13 years later, the Pilgrims sailed to New England on the Mayflower, landed at Cape Cod, and established Plymouth. APUSH 2.3 Review Video This video from Heimler’s History provides an excellent overview … Read more